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All main topics / 3407 / Attribution / 3.3 Attribution
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Attributionsverzerrungen -
Akteur-Beobachter-Divergenz
  • Spezifische Divergenz zwischen Akteuren und Beobachtern, wenn es um die Zuschreibung von Ursachen geht:
  • - Eigenes Handeln (d.h., wenn sie selbst der Akteur sind) schreiben Menscher externe oder situationale Faktoren zu, - beobachtetes Handeln anderer Menschen wird auf deren interne oder dispositionale Faktoren zurückgeführt.
  • Grund ist die Perspektive: Unterschiedlichen Ausrichtung der Aufmerksamkeit bei der Verhaltensbeobachtung. Wenn Menschen das Verhalten einer anderer Person beobachten, wird diese (und deren Verhalten) als „Figur“ vor dem „Hintergrund“ der Situation wahrgenommen. Beim eigenen Handeln ist aufgrund der eigenen Perspektive die Aufmerksamkeit hingegen auf Merkmale der Situation gerichtet, situative Faktoren sind daher auffälliger als das eigene Verhalten selbst.
  •   Im Einklang mit dieser Erklärung konnte Storms zeigen, dass die Akteur-Beobachter-Divergenz umgekehrt werden kann, wenn man dem Handelnden das Geschehen aus der Perspektive eines Beobachters zeigt und umgekehrt.
  • In dem Experiment wurde dies dadurch realisiert, dass man Versuchspersonen in der Rolle von Handelnden nach einer sozialen Interaktion einen Film vorführte, der das ausgeübte Verhalten aus der Perspektive eines Beobachters zeig-te. Versuchspersonen in der Rolle von Beobachtern zeigte man im Unterschied dazu einen Film, der aus der Perspektive eines Handelnden gedreht wurde. Infolge der experimentellen Manipulation der Perspek-tive (bzw. der damit einhergehenden veränderten Ausrichtung der Aufmerksamkeit) führten Versuchspersonen, die zuvor in der Rolle des Handelnden waren, ihr eigenes Verhalten stärker auf Personen-faktoren zurück, während Versuchspersonen, die das Verhalten aus Sichtweise des Handelnden sahen, das beobachtete Verhalten stärker auf Situationsfaktoren attribuierten.
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Flashcard info:
Author: Lise Langstrumpf
Main topic: 3407
Topic: Attribution
School / Univ.: FU Hagen
Published: 13.12.2014

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