CoboCards App FAQ & Wishes Feedback
Language: English Language
Sign up for free  Login

Get these flashcards, study & pass exams. For free! Even on iPhone/Android!

Enter your e-mail address and import flashcard set for free.  
Go!
All main topics / Biology / General

Biology Test 1 (66 Cards)

Say thanks
1
Cardlink
0
Common Prokaryote Shapes
Spherical
Rod-like
Corkscrew-shaped
2
Cardlink
0
taxonomy
The branch of biology that is concerned with naming and classifying organisms
3
Cardlink
0
scientific name of an organism
formed from the genus and species
4
Cardlink
0
genus
a group that includes a number of very closely related species
5
Cardlink
0
species
populations of organisms that can potentially interbreed under natural conditions
6
Cardlink
0
Linnaean classification system
Domain  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species
7
Cardlink
0
phylogeny
evolutionary history
8
Cardlink
0
systematics
The science of reconstructing phylogeny
9
Cardlink
0
Eukarya
Animalia (animals)
Plantae (plants)
Fungi (fungi)
Protists (eukaryotic organisms that are not animals, plants or fungi)
10
Cardlink
0
Biodiversity
the total number of species in an ecosystem
11
Cardlink
0
Protists
any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus

microscopic in size
12
Cardlink
0
pseudopods
in Protists, extensions of the cell membrane used to surround and engulf prey
13
Cardlink
0
Types of Protists that absorb nutrients
Free-living types in the soil that decompose organic dead matter

Parasites that live inside the bodies of a host organism
14
Cardlink
0
Photosynthetic protists
in water are collectively known as algae

15
Cardlink
0
protozoa
Single-celled, non-photosynthetic protists
16
Cardlink
0
Excavates
Protists that have a feeding groove and lack mitochondria

Groove resembles a hole, or a ditch, hence the name.
17
Cardlink
0
Euglenozoans
Protists that have distinctive mitochondria

Live mostly in freshwater and swim by flagella.
18
Cardlink
0
Stramenopiles
include photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms

All members of the group have fine, hair-like projections on their flagella

Can be unicellular or multicellular
19
Cardlink
0
Alveolates
Protists that are parasites, predators, and phytoplankton

Single-celled

Can cause red-tide that suffocates marine life, and produce a toxin that can be lethal to humans and is found in some shellfish. 
20
Cardlink
0
Rhizarians
include the foraminiferans and the radiolarians

The pseudopods are thin and thread-like and may extend through elaborate shells.

foraminiferans produce chalky shells, while radiolarians produce glassy shells made of silica.
21
Cardlink
0
Amoebozoans
inhabit aquatic and terrestrial environments; they feed and move by pseudopods

Can be predatory or parasitic.

Includes a particular type of amoeba that can cause dysentery.
22
Cardlink
0
Red algae
live primarily in clear tropical oceans

Multicellular, photosynthetic seaweeds

Contain pigment that can range in color from red to black

Found in deep, clear waters, where their red pigments absorb the deeply penetrating blue-green light and transfer this light energy to chlorophyll for photosynthesis

-- Contribute to the formation of certain reefs.
23
Cardlink
0
Green algae
live mostly in ponds and lakes

Photosynthetic protists.

May be multicellular or unicellular

Closely related to plants, and some scientists believe that the earliest plants were similar to today’s multicellular green algae
24
Cardlink
0
stomata
pores in plants that open and allow gas exchange, but close when water is scarce
25
Cardlink
0
nonvascular plants
require a moist environment to reproduce, and therefore they straddle the boundary between aquatic and terrestrial life

Nonvascular plants lack conducting structures

They lack true roots, stems, or leaves

Because they must instead rely on slow diffusion to distribute water and other nutrients, nonvascular plants are of limited body size (most less than 2.5 cm tall)


include the hornworts, liverworts, and mosses
26
Cardlink
0
vascular plants
have been able to colonize dry habitats

have tube-shaped conducting cells that also provide support

Can be divided into two groups: the seedless vascular plants and the seed plants
27
Cardlink
0
Pollen
carries male gametes (sperm)

They are dispersed by wind or pollinators

They eliminate the need for sperm to swim to the egg
28
Cardlink
0
Seeds
three components: an embryo, a food supply for the embryo, and a protective outer coat
29
Cardlink
0
angiosperms
flowering plants

Angiosperms produce flowers and fruits

They are the most diverse and widespread of all plants, with more than 230,000 species

They range in size from 3 mm in diameter, to 100 meters in height
30
Cardlink
0
Flowers
reproductive structures that are believed to have evolved when gymnosperm ancestors formed an association with animals
31
Cardlink
0
Fruits
mature ovaries that contain developing seeds

Various fruit adaptations help disperse seeds

Edible fruits entice animals to eat them (seeds pass through the digestive tract unharmed)
32
Cardlink
0
Broad leaves
capture more sunlight

The broad leaves of angiosperms collect more sunlight for photosynthesis than the narrow leaves of gymnosperms.
33
Cardlink
0
Fungi
consist of slender threads

Most fungi are multicellular

Cells are surrounded by cell walls composed of chitin, a structural polysaccharide
34
Cardlink
0
mycelium
an interwoven mass of threadlike filaments that maks up the body of a fungi
35
Cardlink
0
hyphae
an interwoven mass of threadlike filaments
36
Cardlink
0
septum
Hyphae of most species are divided into many cells by a partition called a septum; each cell possesses one or more nuclei

Pores in the septum allow cytoplasm to stream from one cell to the next

Fungi cannot move, but grow rapidly in any direction within a suitable environment
37
Cardlink
0
Spores
are tiny reproductive packages capable of developing into adult fungi

They are often produced in large numbers, and are spread by animals or air currents
38
Cardlink
0
the Major Groups of Fungi
chytrids

zygomycetes

glomeromycetes

basidiomycetes

ascomycetes
39
Cardlink
0
chytrids
Most are aquatic

They are distinguished from other fungi by forming flagellated
spores that require water for dispersal

They reproduce both asexually and sexually

Most feed on dead aquatic material

Some species are parasites of plants and animals
40
Cardlink
0
zygomycetes
Most live in soil or on decaying plant or animal material

The group includes black bread mold

They reproduce both asexually and sexually
41
Cardlink
0
glomeromycetes
live on the roots of plants

Their hyphae penetrate root cells and form microscopic branching structures inside the cell

The interaction forms a beneficial relationship
42
Cardlink
0
basidiomycetes
Called the club fungi because they produce club-shaped reproductive structures

Typically reproduce sexually

Most mushrooms are included in this group
43
Cardlink
0
ascomycetes
Called sac fungi and reproduce both asexually and sexually

Includes most food-spoiling molds

Truffles (exotic mushroom delicacies)

Penicillin (the world’s first antibiotic)

Yeasts
44
Cardlink
0
symbiotic relationship
a close interaction between organisms of different species over an extended period of time
45
Cardlink
0
Lichens
formed by fungi that live with photosynthetic algae or bacteria

The fungus provides its photosynthetic partner with shelter and protection

The photosynthetic partner in turn provides the fungus with food (sugar)

grow on a wide variety of materials (soils, tree trunks and branches, rocks, fences, roofs, and walls)

They are able to survive environmental extremes (newly formed volcanic islands, deserts)

Very diverse in form
46
Cardlink
0
Mycorrhizae
symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots
47
Cardlink
0
Endophytes
Fungi that live inside plant stems and leaves
48
Cardlink
0
decomposers
Fungi that feed on dead organisms release extracellular substances that digest the tissues of the dead and release carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and minerals that can be reused by plants
49
Cardlink
0
fermentation
Yeasts consume sugar from fruit, wheat, or barley and release ethanol and CO2 in the process
50
Cardlink
0
gymnosperms
non-flowering plants

evolved earlier than angiosperms

only a few groups of gymnosperms survive, including ginkgos and conifers
51
Cardlink
0
conifers
includes pines, firs, spruce, hemlocks, and cypresses

Conifers are most abundant in cold latitudes and at high elevations
52
Cardlink
0
Flagella
the primary means of locomotion in prokaryotes
53
Cardlink
0
biofilms
Groups of slime-secreting bacteria
54
Cardlink
0
Endospores
thickly wrapped particles of genetic material and a few enzymes


form inside some bacteria under inhospitable environmental conditions and get released from the bacterium.
55
Cardlink
0
anaerobes
doesn't require oxygen
56
Cardlink
0
Cyanobacteria
Perform Photosynthesis
57
Cardlink
0
binary fission
Asexual cell division produces identical copies
58
Cardlink
0
Conjugation
allows for DNA transfer between donor and recipient

Sex pili connect donor to recipient cell, by forming a cytoplasmic bridge
59
Cardlink
0
plasmids
Small circular DNA molecules that carry genes from donor to recipient
60
Cardlink
0
pathogenic bacteria
Disease-producing bacteria
61
Cardlink
0
Examples of pathogenic bacteria diseases
Tuberculosis (once thought to be eliminated from the United States) is making a comeback

Gonorrhea and syphilis (sexually transmitted diseases) have reached epidemic proportions around the globe

Cholera (water-transmitted in contaminated drinking water) is under control in developed countries but remains a major killer in poorer parts of the world

Black Plague
62
Cardlink
0
virus
consists of a molecule of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat


They have no cell membranes, no cytoplasm, no ribosomes

They can reproduce only inside a host cell


They are very small (0.05–0.2 micrometers)
63
Cardlink
0
host cell
What viruses infect
64
Cardlink
0
bacteriophage
Virus that infects bacteria
65
Cardlink
0
Viroids
infectious particles with only short RNA strands (no protein coat)

These particles can enter a host cell nucleus and direct new viroid
synthesis

Very commonly cause disease in plants
66
Cardlink
0
Prions
misfolded protein that becomes infectious
Flashcard set info:
Author: taylorlapeyre
Main topic: Biology
Topic: General
School / Univ.: LSU
City: Baton Rouge
Published: 07.02.2012
Tags: biology, 1002,
 
Card tags:
All cards (66)
no tags
Report abuse

Cancel
Email

Password

Login    

Forgot password?
Deutsch  English