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All main topics / Medicine / Anatomy

Muscle Mechanics (11 Cards)

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3 Phases of Muscle Twitch
1) Latent Period - AP moves through Sarcolemma, causing Ca2+ release from SR

2) Contraction Phase - Ca2+ binds, cross-bridge formation, power stroke, tension builds to peak

3) Relaxation Phase - Ca2+ actively transported back into SR, Ca2+ levels fall, active sites are covered, tension falls to resting levels.

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How is strength of muscle contraction increased? (2)
1) Summation - Increasing force of contraction of muscle fibers within muscles

2) Recruitment - Increasing number of muscle fibers contracting.
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4 types of muscle contraction
1) Treppe

2) Wave Summation

3) Incomplete Tetanus

4) Complete Tetanus

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Recruitment:

Strength of contraction increased by increasing number of ??? stimulated.

??? activated first, ??? recruited as needed.

Some stimulated and held in ??? while additional units recruited.
Strength of contraction increased by increasing number of Motor Units stimulated.

Small Motor Units activated first, Larger Motor Units recruited as needed.

Some stimulated and held in Tetanus while additional units recruited.
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Muscle Tone: Generalization
Some motor units are always active, not enough to cause movement. Helps stabilize bone & joints, maintain body temperature. Heightened tone accelerates recruitment during voluntary contraction.
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3 types of Skeletal muscle fibers
1) Fast Fibers = White Fibers = Fast Twitch

2) Slow Fibers = Red Fibers = Slow Twitch

3) Intermediate Fiber = Fast Twitch Oxidative, Fast Resistance
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Fast Fibers = white fibers = fast twitch (7)
- Contract (reach peak twitch tension) very quickly, strong contractions

- Majority in body

- Large in diameter

- Densely packed myofibrils

- Large glycogen stores

- Few mitochondria

- Fatigue rapidly, use a lot of ATP

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Slow Fibers = red fiber = slow twitch (6)
- ½ diameter of fast

- 3X longer to reach peak tension

- More mitochondria, less glycogen

- Specialized to contract for extended periods, slow to fatigue

- Surrounded by extensive capillaries:  O2

- Contain red pigment:  myoglobin
   - Related to hemoglobin
   - Binds oxygen
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Intermediate Fiber = fast twitch oxidative, fast resistance (5)
Mid sized

Most closely resemble fast fibers

Few myoglobin

Extensive capillary network

More resistant to fatigue than fast
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Muscle Hypertropy
Muscle growth from heavy training
   - Increases diameter of muscle fibers
   - Increases number of myofibrils
   - Increases mitochondria, glycogen reserves
   - Occurs in muscles stimulated to near maximal tension
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Muscle Atrophy:  use it or lose it
Lack of muscle activity
   - Reduces muscle size, tone and power
   - Fibers smaller and weaker:  proteins broken down and replaced with fibrous tissue (connective tissue)
   - Initially reversible
        > If muscle dies then losses are permanent
        > Thus physical therapy is important for those who are unable to move
Flashcard set info:
Author: Rozen
Main topic: Medicine
Topic: Anatomy
Published: 10.05.2010
 
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