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All main topics / Medicine / Anatomy Foot

Anatomy 1, 12 (neck), 9 (eye) (100 Cards)

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1
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name the two interarsal joints (one has two other joints)
subtalar (talocalcaneal joint)
transverse tarsal joint (calcaneocuboid and talonavicular joints)
2
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what is the blood supply of the eye?
infraorbital form the internal carotid and the infraorbital artery form the external carotid (supplies structures related to the orbital floor)
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what are the
Long posterior ciliary arteries, which enter the eyeball posteriorly, one on each side, piercing the sclera and running between it and the choroid to anastomose with the  anterior ciliary arteries (branches of the lacrimal artery) to supply the ciliary plexus.

2 Short posterior ciliary arteries which enter the eyeball posteriorly and directly supply the choroid, which nourishes the outer, non-vascular layer of the retina by diffusion.

3. The central artery of the retina,  gives out branches which
provide the direct blood supply to the internal aspect of the
retina.


4
. The lacrimal artery, supply the lacrimal gland, lateral extraocular muscles, the eyeball (via an anterior ciliary branch) and the lateral sides of the eyelids.

5.  Muscular arteries, which supply the extraocular muscles - those supplying the recti anastomose with anterior ciliary arteries.

6. The supraorbital artery,  exits the orbit through the supraorbital notch  with the supraorbital nerve. It supplies the forehead to the vertex of the skull.

7.  The posterior ethmoidal artery, which exits the orbit medially through the posterior ethmoidal foramen to supply the ethmoidal air cells and nasal cavity.

8. The anterior ethmoidal artery, which similarly exits the orbit medially through the anterior ethmoidal foramen, enters the cranial cavity to give of the anterior meningeal branch, and
continues into the nasal cavity to supply its septum and lateral wall.

9. The dorsal nasal artery, supply the upper surface of the nose.

10. The supratrochlear artery**, supply the medial part of the forehead.
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though wich two veins does the venous drainage of the orbit occur? thriough what veins are the sov formed?
though which formane does the sov go?
superior and inferior ophthalmic veins.

superior ophthalmic vein: -connecting veins of the supraorbital
and angular veins of the face
.
superior vorticose veins draining the choroid layer of the eyeball -- connecting branch from the inferior ophthalmic vein.#

It passes through the superior orbital fissure to drain into the
cavernous sinus.
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form which vein does the inferior opthalami vein arise?
form which veins does it receive tributaries?
to which structure does it go to though wich formane??
angular vein
ophthalmic artery as well as the inferior vorticose veins.

It passes through the inferior orbital fissure to drain into the pterygoid venous plexus.
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from left upper to right lower

posterior ethmoidal
anterior ethmoidal
infratrochlear nerve
MR
long ciliarz
short ciliary
lacriaml galnd
lacrimal nerve
LR
ciliarz gangilion
abducens
infeiror divions of oculomotor
nasociliarz
supeiror divion of oculomotor
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form the top left, down to the right

SO
supratrochlear
supraorbital
LPS
SR
lacrimal gland
MR
lacirmal nerve v1
frontal nerve v1
nasociliary nerve v1
trochlear nerve
opthalmaic division of trigeminal v1
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where can i find the abducens
between medula oblongatea and pons
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what are the three nerves form the opthalamic divison of trigeminal v1
nasociliary frontal and lacrimal
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the lacrimal nerve travels OVER the lateral rectus
and receives input form which branch?
it supplies which three strucutres?
receives a branch from the zygomaticotemporal nerve which carries sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic fibres for distribution to the lacrimal gland.

the lacrimal gland, conjunctiva and the lateral part of the eyelid.
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the frontal nerve is SUPERIOR to LPS and SR. it divides into two branches. name them.
what sensation do thez receive?
supratrochlear and
supraorbital nerves and supraorbital

supratrochlear: sensation from the conjunctiva, the skin of the medial part of the upper eyelid and that of the lower medial part of the forehead.

supraorbital nerve : receives sensation from the middle part of the upper eyelid and conjunctiva, the forehead and scalp as far as the vertex.
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the nasocilliary gives off a branch to the ciliary ganglion. in the ciliary gangion it gives off long ciliary nerves (sensory to the eiyeball) but also conatins what type of fibres? to waht nerves does the nasociliary nerve give rise to 3 ?what to tehy supplz?
sympathetic fibres for pupil dilation before continuing

posterior and then an anterior ethmoidal nerve and terminates as the
infratrochlear nerve.

The posterior ethmoidal: nerve exits the orbit via the posterior ethmoidal foramen and carries sensation from the posterior ethmoidal air cells and spenoid sinus.

The anterior ethmoidal nerve:  exits the orbit via the anterior ethmoidal foramen and receives sensation from the anterior cranial fossa, nasal cavity and the skin over the lower half of the nose,

infratrochlear nerve:  exits the orbit medially and receives sensation from the medial part of the upper and lower eyelids, the
lacrimal sac and skin of the upper half of the nose.
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what structes go though the inferior orbital foramen?
inferior opthalmaic vein
maxillary nerve and  its branches
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what stuctures go though the optic canal?
optic nerve and opthalamic artery
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what structes goes though the infraoirbital foramen?
infraorbital nerve form v2
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what do the tarsal glands produce?
what does it do?
lipid secretion lubricating and preventing them from
sticking together when they close.

hydrophobic barrier that lacrimal fluid tends not to cross unless produced in excessive amounts
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what is stye?
what is chalazon?
Blockage and subsequent inflammation of either the
ciliary glands or associated follicles or sweat glands
produces a stye (or hordeolum) on the free
margin of the eyelid,

blockage and inflammation of the tarsal glands produces a (tarsal or Meibomian) chalazion,
usually more painful than a stye, on the inner surface of the
eyelid.
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list the way of tears.
lacrimal gland produces lacrimal fluid containing lysozymes -> conveyed to superior conjunctival fonrix by lacrimal ducts -> (by pressing eye together, can push the fluid out an htereby moistens the cornea and conjunctiva providing them with o2 and dissolved nutrients) .-> fluid moves to the lacrimal lake towards the meidal canthus (conncected with a cunjunctival fol, the pilca seminlunaris and the fleshy caruncle) -> goes to lacrimal papilla to the punctum -> opends tinto canaliculi -> drain fluid form lacrimal lake into the lacriumal sac which is a dialtion of the nasolacrimal duct -> infeior nasal meatus -> nasopharynx
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lacrimal lake has both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation.
where does the parasympathetic innervation come from?
list its way to the lacriumal gland.
where does szmpathetic innervation come from?
list its way to the lacriumal gland.
lacrimal nucleus of the facial nerve

the greater petrosal nerve   (facial nerve) continue within the nerve of the pterygoid canal to the pterygopalatine ganglion, where they synapse with cell bodies of postsynaptic fibres. These fibres join the maxillary division o the trigeminal nerve and then its branches, the zygomatic nerve and zygomaticotemporalnerve, and then run in a communicating branch to the lacrimal nerve.

superior cervical ganglio n by the internal carotid plexus 

vas the deep petrosal nerve and then join the parasympathetic fibres in the nerve of the pterygoid canal. They traverse the pterygopalatine ganglion without synapsing and continue to run with the postsynaptic parasympathetic fibres in the maxillary,
zygomatic, zygomaticotemporal and lacrimal nerves
.
20
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what stucture forms the true socket of the eye ball?
bulbar fascia
21
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list the three layers of the eye.
fibrous layer (sclera and cornea)
middle vascular layer (choroid, iris, ciliarybody)
retina, non visual and optic part
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in the vascular layer or uvea we find the choroid. it has two layers. list them and their actions.
1) PIGMENTED VASCUALR LAMINA has the large vessels
2) CHORIOCAPILLARIES contains capillaries, is the inner layer and forms nutirents supply for the avascualr retina
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the ciliary body is a continuation of the choroid underlying the corneoscleral junction.  its is composed of three structures. list them.
The ciliary ring is the posterior part of the body, and its surface has shallow grooves called ciliary striae.

The ciliary processes is connected to the suspensory ligaments of the lens. They also secrete the aqueous humour which fills the anterior (between the cornea and the iris/pupil) and posterior
(between the iris/pupil and lens/ciliary body) chambers.

Ciliary muscle is arranged as meridianal and circular smooth muscle fibres, Ciliary muscle is innervated by parasympathetic fibres from the oculomotor nerve which synapse in the ciliary
ganglion
before passing forward to the eyeball in the short ciliary nerves. Contraction, especially of the meridianal fibres, serves to pull the ciliary body forward, relieving tension on the suspensory ligaments and allowing the elastic lens to become more convex and increase its refractive power.
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the iris has two parts. list them and their nerve supplz and their actions.
Circularly-arranged fibres of sphincter pupillae arranged around the margin of the pupil close it in the presence of bright light and during accommodation. This occurs under
parasympathetic control from the oculomotor nerve via the ciliary ganglion and short ciliary nerves.

• Radially-arranged fibres of dilator pupillae, forming a thin sheet close to the posterior surface of the iris, open the pupil in the presence of light of low intensity or in the presence of excessive sympathetic activity (such as occurs in fright).
This occurs under sympathetic control via the long ciliary nerves.
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the iris has two layers, name them and one of them has anoother layer. list what they do.
which layer is avascular?
by what sturcture is the other one supplied by?
what is the ora serrata?
optic and non visual part

optic part has two layers>
– a neural layer which is light receptive
-a pigment cell layer, which consists of a single layer of cells that reinforces the light-absorbing properties of the choroid in
reducing the scattering of light in the eyeball. T

the neural layer is avascular and receives oxygen and nutrients by diffusion from the choriocapillaris of the choroid.

The pigment cell layer is supplied by the central artery of the retina, a branch of the ophthalmic artery, and drained by a corresponding system of retinal veins which unite to form the central vein of the retina.

The optic part of the retina terminates anteriorly along the ora serrata (L. serrated edge

The non-visual part of the retina is an anterior continuation of the pigment cell layer and a layer of supporting cells over the ciliary body (the ciliary part of the retina) and the posterior surface
of the iris (the iridial part of the retina),
26
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what strructure dos the macula lutea contain?a nd what does sthjat structure contain?
foeva centralis
foveola
27
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where does the canal of schlemm drain to?
limbal veins -> vorticose veins -> anteior ciliary veins
28
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what happends in relaxaton fo the ciliarz body?
om contraction?
Relaxation of the ciliary muscle in the ciliary body changes the shape of the lens from a default sphere to a relatively flat
shape and allows distance vision.

Parasympathetic stimulation of the ciliary muscle causes it to
contract like a sphincter, reducing tension on the lens and allowing it to rounden. This increased convexity increases refraction for near vision, the process of accommodation.
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wht is presbyopia?
what is cataract?
The lens becomes denser and more flattened with age, which gradually reduces its refractive or focussing powers, a condition known as presbyopia.,

Some people also experience a loss of transparency (cloudiness) of the lens from areas of opacity (cataracts).
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what is the superior tarsal muslce and its action?
The deep lamina of levator palpebrae superioris includes smooth muscle fibres, the superior tarsal muscle, that produce additional widening of the palpebral fissures during a sympathetic response to, for example, a fright.
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whre to all theextraocular muscles arise form apart form one?
the comon tendinous ring and the spenoid bone.
inferior recuts arises form the lteral maxlla and lacriumal groove
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action of superior recuts?
Elevates, adducts and
internally (medially) rotates
eyeball
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action of inferior rectus?
Depresses, adducts and
externally (laterally) rotates
eyeball
34
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by what structures is the roof,
medial wall
inferior wall
lateral wall
apex
orbital part of the frontal bone (separates the orbit from the anterior cranial fossa)
lesser wing of spenoid ( towards the apex of the orbt)


ethmoid bone, with contributions from the frontal, lacrimal, and
sphenoid bones.  Anteriorly, the medial wall is indented by
the lacrimal groove and fossa.  The medial walls of
the orbits are extremely thin and highly pneumatized with
ethmoidal air cells

maxilla  zygomatic and palatine (walls are shared bz maxillarz sinus and is demarcated form the lateral wall bz the inferor orbital fissure)
bones. Its thin wall is shared

frontal process of the zygomatic bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid, and is the thickest and strongest wall (and also the most exposed and vulnerable to direct trauma).

• The apex of the orbit is at the optic canal, which passes through the lesser wing of the sphenoid, just medial to the superior orbital fissure.
35
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bz what structure is the orbital part lines( woudl normallz bz periosteum or pericranium)
periorbita
36
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what strcuters pass htough the superior orbital fissure?
CN 34 5v1 6 and  superior othalamic vein
37
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by what nerve is the platyssma supplied?
cervical branch of facial nerve
38
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what are the different actions of the SCM?
b what nerve is it supplied?
c 2,3 and spinal acessory nerve

unilateral action: turns head to opposite side and flexes it laterally to same side
bilateral action: flexes head against resistance
acesoory muscle for respiration
39
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what is congential torticolis?
what is spasmodic torticolis?
ct: if SCM are strechted to much during child brith. haemorrahe happends and fibrous tissue invades the muslce which cuases it to shorten and  contract.

ST caused by a sustaiend contraction of the SCM and treapezius. the patient may feel tremor in hands. . it is very painful and one has to cut the spinal acesorry nerve.
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what arises between scalenus anterior and medisu??
by what nerve are they innervated?
brachial plexus and subclavian arteries

innervation of scalene medius: c 3 to c7 anterior rami
innervation of scalene atnerior:anterior rramiof c4 to c7
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what is the action of omohyoidP
what is its innervation?
depress the hyoid bone
ansoa cervicalis
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transverse cervical,
lesser occipital
greater auricular
supraclaviclar nerves
accessroy nerve
cn 11
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by what nerves is the cericval plexus formed

what does c2 supply ( lesser occipital nerve(
1 superior root of ansa cervicais
2 transverse verical nerve
3 inferior root of ansa cervicalis
4 supraclavicular nerve
5 prhenic nerve
6 great auricular nerve
7 lesser occipital nerve

c1 to 4

it supplies the skin overlying trapezius
and the skin of the posterior neck
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the branches of the cercial plexus can be classified as cutaneus, muscular and phrenic nerve. hte cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus arises form c2 to 4 wich emerge form the posterior border of SCM. tname them and there origin. there are 4
there are muscular brancehs, there are three, name their origin.

• lesser occipital (C2)
• greater auricular (C2-3)
• transverse cervical (C2-3)
• supraclavicular branches (C3-4)

sternocleidomastoid (C2-3), levator scapulae (C3-4) and trapezius (C3-4).
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by what nerves its the ansa cervicalis formed?
which fibres form ansa cervicalis supply which muscles?, two differnt types of fibres suply the diferent types of muscles.
union of descending cervical nerves with some of c1 and hypoglossal
c1 to 3 supply the sternothyroid, sternohyoid and omohyoid
c1 travellng with hypoglossal supplies the thyrohoid and geniohyoid.
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Question
Answer
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flet side downwards:
maxilary vien
superficial temporal vein
posterior auricualr vein
occipital vein
anterior jugular vein
external juglar vein

reight side dwon:
facial vein
retromandibular
common facial
internal juglar vein
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what are the actions and innervation of
sternohyoid:
omohyoid
thyrohoid
sternothyroid

thre where all the infrahyoid muscles, not he suprahyoid muslce.

digastric
stylohoid
mylohoid

Sternohyoid : Depresses hyoid Ansa cervicalis
(C1-3)
Omohyoid: Depresses hyoid Ansa cervicalis
(C1-3)
Thyrohyoid: Depresses hyoid; evates thyroid cartilage
C1
(via Hypoglossal n.)
Sternothyroid: Depresses larynx Ansa cervicalis
(C1-3)


Digastric: depresses mandible; elevates hyoid
Post. belly – VII
Ant. belly – V3
Stylohyoid:  Elevates hyoid VII
Mylohyoid: elecates floow of mouth & hyoid during
1st stage of swallowing;
when hyoid is fixed, assists in
depression of mandible & opening of
mouth
V3
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what is nte nerve supply of the submandibular and sublingualr gland?
uperior salivary nucleus of CN VII, which are distributed to the gland via the chorda tympani and lingual nerves. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibres travel to the gland directly
along the duct (synpased at submandiblar gangion) . Postganglionic sympathetic fibres travel to the gland (like other sympathetic
nerves) as a plexus of nerves around the accompanying arteries
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form where to where does the larynx extend?
what are its actions?
base of the tongue to C6 where it
becomes continuous with the trachea

- It acts as a sphincter guarding the lower respiratory tract
- responsible for phonation (sound)
-opens into the laryngopharyx at the
laryngopharyngeal inlet.
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the thyroid gland is a bi lobed endocrine gland. from where to wher e does its 5 cm lobes exxtend?
by what is is innervated?
thyroid cartilage and the 6th tracheal ring.

cervical sympathetic trunk
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where can e find the isthmus?
where is a tracheostomy made=
what two structes do we find in front of the isthmus?
Isthmus
• Lies anterior to 2nd, 3rd and 4th tracheal rings
• A tracheostomy hole is made just below the cricoid to avoid the highly vascular isthmus
• Anterior jugular veins and the sternothyroid muscle lie anterior to isthmus
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what is the pyramidal lobe?

• A remnant of the embryological thyroglossal duct
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the thyroid gland is enclosed by a fibrous capsule. how is this capsule referred to?
what does it do?
whaqt structes run between the anteiror and posterior layers?

pretracheal fascia or the surgical capsule
• The capsule surrounds and holds the thyroid gland in place, ensuring that it moves with
the larynx while swallowing and speaking
• Branches of the inferior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve are found
between the anterior and posterior layers of pretracheal or surgical capsule
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list the arterial and venous supply of the tyroid gland
-superior thyroid arteries (branches of the external carotid) and
- inferior thyroid arteries (branches of the thyrocervical trunks from the subclavian arteries).

1. Superior thyroid vein – drains upper part of lobe into the internal jugular vein
2. Middle thyroid vein – drains lower part of lobe into the internal jugular vein
3. Inferior thyroid vein – drains isthmus and lower part of lobes into the brachiocephalic
vein
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the tyroid gland comprises what kind of cells, there are two tpes.
what do these cells produce?
the thyroid required the presence of what hormone to produce all of that stuff?
what to the thyroid hormones contol? 5
what hormones contol the calcium level in the body?
follicular cells and parafollicular cells.

Most of the thyroid tissue consists of the follicular cells, which secrete iodine-containing hormones called tyroxine  t4 and triiodothyronine t3.


The parafollicular cells secrete the hormone calcitonin.

iodine


control the rate of metabolism
normal growth,
antiproteolytic function of insulin
brain development
development of the sex organs.

Calcitonin works together with parathyroid hormone to
regulate calcium levels in the body.
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where does the carotid artery bifurcatre
cricoid cartiledge
upper border of thyroid
The common carotid artery bifurcates into an internal and an
external branch at the level of the C3 4 vertebra and the upper border of the thyroid
cartilage.
c 5 6
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the terminal portion of the common carotid artery is dialated and is known as what structure? in what is it involved? where are its afferent impulses transmitted to by what structure?
carotid sinus,
which contains baroreceptors. Baroreceptors facilitate blood pressure homeostasis by detecting changes in stretch and transmural pressure in the heart, carotid sinus, aortic arch, and
other large vessels.

glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves to the tractus solitarius and the paramedian nuclei in the brain stem.

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what are the branches of the external carotid artery before it enters the parotid gland??
• Superior thyroid
• Lingual
• Facial
• Occipital
• Posterior auricular
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Question
Answer
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left side:
maxillary artery
facial artery
llingual artery
external carotid
superior tyhroid artery
thyroid gland

right side:
superfiical temproal
posteiror auricular
internal jugular
occipital artery
internal carotid arters
ascending pharyngeal artery
carotid artery+
common carotid artery
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submandibular gland is a common side for wat type of formation and how does it present iself?
The submandibular gland is a common site of calculus formation, but this condition is rare in
other salivary glands. The presence of a tense swelling below the body of the mandible,
greatest before or during a meal, and absent / reduced between meals, is diagnostic of this
condition. Palpation of the gland will reveal a blocked orifice of the duct and frequently the
stone can actually be palpated within the duct.
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whcih muscles are active durig supination?
wgat combination of movement does that entail)
tibialis anterior and tibials posterior
inversion, plantarflexion, adduction
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what muscles does pronation have and what movemnts does it entail?
fibularis longus and brevis
eversion dorsiflexion and abduction
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Question
H is talocalceneonavicular joint
A middle talar articular surface
B anterior talar articualr surface
C talonavicular surface
D navicular
E plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
F posterior talar articular surface (anatomical subtalar joint)
G interosseos talocalcaneal ligament
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name the letters and tgeur function and attachment
A plantar calceneocavicualar spring ligament
suppors head of talus
maintains medial longituional arch of the foot
between sustentaculum tali and navicular
B short plantar ligament (calceneocuboidal ligament)
maintains longituional arch of foot
anteroinferior aspect of calceneus to inferor surface of cuboid
c lontg plantar ligament
maintain longituional arch of foot
calcaneus to cuboidal bone
D fibularis longus tendon
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the plantar fascia exends form where to where and is made upo what fibres and is devided into which three component?
medial and lateral tubercle of calcaneal tuberosity  of calcaneus  to phalagnes
collagen fibres
medail, central and laeral component
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A synovail sheath
B extensor halucis longus
C extensor hood (THE ONE AROUND THE TOE)
doorsal interossi
d extensor digitorum brevis
E interior extensor retinaculum
F tendon of extensor digitorumm longus
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by wha nerves are the intrinsic muscles of the foot supplied with exeption of one?
medial and laeral plantar branches of tibilar nerve expect for extensor digitorum brecis and prat of first two dorsal interossi  they are supplied by deep fibular nerve
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important dermatomes> L5 is what? S1 is what?
.5 toe
s1 is little toe
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name the 3 musles in he 1st planar layer, the 2 in the 2nd, the 3 in the 3rd and the 2 in the 4th of the intrinsic plantar muscles. the one in the dorsal aspct is the extensor digitorum brevis.
1st: abductor hallucis
flexor digitorum brevis
abductor digiti minimi
2nd: quadraurs plantae
4 lumbrical muscles
3rd: flexor hallucis brevis
adductor hallucis
flexor digiti minimi
4th: dorsal interossei (4)
3 plantar interossei
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Question
A flexor hallucis longus
b FLEXOR digitorum longus
C quadratus plantae
D lumbrical
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whch one of these belong to the three muscle of the first layer?
a flexor digiti minimi (3rd layer)
b lateral plantar artery and nerve
c flecor digitorum brevis
d abductor digit minimi
e abducor hallucis
f medial plantar nerve and artery

abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor hallucis
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name the nerve supply of the first layer of the intrinsic muscles
abductor hallucis medial plantar nerve of tibilar nerve (s2,3)
flexor digitorum brevis medial plantar nerve of tibiarl nerve
abducor digit minimi
lateral platnar nerve of tibial nerve (s2,3)
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what nerve supplies the heel?
medial calcaneal nerve (branch of the tibial nerve)
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name the nerve supply of the two intrinsic muscles of the 2nd plantar layer and their function
lumbcicals: 1st one: medial plantar nerve of tibilar nerve
2,3,4, lateral plantar nerve of tibilar nerve
Flexion of metatarsophalangeal joint and extension of interphalangeal joints
Quadratur plantae: Assists flexor digitorum longus tendon in flexing toes II to V
latereal plantar nerve
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what does the medial plantar nerve innervate?
sensory
skin on anterior two thrids of  the sole
four intrinsic muscles (abductor hallucis, flecor digitorum brevis, frist lumbiral and flexor hallucis bervis)
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by which nerve is the 3rd layer of the intristic platnar muscles supplied?
thrid layer is supplied by the lateral tibilar nerve
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Question
a first dorsal interosseus muscle
b extensor tendon
c exensor hood (dorsal expansion)_
d deep transverse metartasal ligament
e lumbical musles
f tednon of FDL
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A oblique head
b transverse head
c adductor hallucis
d tednon of FHL
e flexor halucis brevis
f tendon of tibilairs poserior
G tendon of fibularis longos
H flwxor digit minimi
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name the nerve suppy of the i4th layer of the inrisnic mucles of the foot.
dorsal interossei: Lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve; first and second dorsal interossei also innervated by deep fibular nerve [S2,S3]
plantar interossei: lateral plantar nerve
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Question
A abduction (dorsal interossei)
B adduction (plantar interossei)
C first dorsal interosseus muscle
D tendon of tibialsi posterior
E third plantar interosseus musle
the two lines above: plantar ligaments and deep transverse metatarsal ligaments
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and what goes though D?
a tibial nerve (branches at midpoint of medial malleolus and heel)
b felxor hallucis longus
c felxor retinaculum
d tarsal tunnel ( posterior tibiarl arter, nerve goes though there, and tendons)
e felxor digitorus longus
f tibialis anterios
g medial palnar nerve
h lateral plantar nerve
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name what  supplies what? a gives rise to what nerves?
a medial plantar nerve (sensory , suppies anterior 2/3  of sole and 3 and a half toes, also innervates 4 intrinsic muscles (abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, 1st lumbrical, flexor hallucis brevis)
- gives rise to proper plantar digital nerve to medial side of the great toe
gives rise to three common plantar digital nerves which form the proper plantar digital branches of toes 1 to 4
- first comon digital nerve provides a branch to the first lumbical msucle
b sapheous nerve
c medial calcaneal nerve (form posterior tibilal nerve ) supplies heal
d sural nerve
e lateral plantar nerve
- innervates all intrinsic muscles exept for 4 supplied by the medial one
- provides cutaneous innervation fo lateral side of the anteror 2/3 of the sole  and lateral 1 and a half toe on lateral dside
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what test the plantar reflex? which nerve roots? where is it stroked at the sole?what is the normal response? what is abnomral response?
L4,5,s1,2,
heel to toe
flexion of he great toe, if exends and the toes fann then babinski sydrome, indicates brain injury
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a deep fibular nerve
b superfiial fibular nerve
c branch of deep fibular nerve to extesor digitorum brevis
d extensor digitorum brevis
e medail calcaneal nerve
f tibial nerve
g medail plantar nerve
h deep branch of lateral plantar nerve
i brach of first lumbrial muscle
j common plantar digital nerve
k proper planar digital nerve
l superfical nrach of lteral plantar nerve
m plantar nerve (banches into a superfical branch and deep branch)
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the superfical branch of the lateral planar nerve gives rise to 2 nerves. name them and their innervation
proper plantar digital nerve (skin on the lateral side of the little toe, flexor digiti minimi and dorsal and plantar interossei msucles between 4 and 5 metatarsal)

common plantar digital nerve divides into proper plantar digital nerves to the skin between toe 4 and 5
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what does the deep branch of the lateral planar nerve suply?
motor mainly
2 to 4 lumbrical muscles, adductor hallucis, and all interossei (expet the ones between 4 asnd 5 which are innervated by the proper plantar digital nerve of the  superficial branch)
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what does the deep fibular nerve supply int he foot?
- extensor digitorum brevis
two dorsal interossei muscles
skin an the 1 and 2 toes and webspace ( branches the dorsal digital nerves)

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what does the superficial fibular nerve supply in the foot?
mainly snesory  to most of the skin of the dorsal aspect of the foot

and exept for toe 1 and 2 ( innervated by deep fibular nerve, and skin of lateral side of the foot and litle toe ( sural nerve)

divides into medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous neves
gives rise to cutanous branches along the way

terminates in common plus proper dorsal digital nerves taht supply skin of the proximal aspect of the medail half on the great toe and the lteral 3 and a half digits
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what does the sural nerve supply in the foot?
is a cutaneous branch of the tibial nerve
next to saphenous vein
terminal braches innervate skin of laeral side of the foot and dorsolateral surface of little toe
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what does the saphenous nerve supply?
is a cutaneous branch aof the femoral nerve
termianl banch supplies medial side of the proximal foot
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A saphenous nerve
b deep fibular nerve
c sural nerve
d superfial fibular nerve
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A dorsalis pedis ( continuation of anterior tibial artery)
b lateral plantar artery
c medial platnar arterz (from psoerior platnar artery)
d odrsal metartarsal and digital arteries
e same as d
f larteral tarsal artery
g deep platnar artery (terminal branch of the dorsarlis pedis) forming the deep plantar arch with the lateral plantar artery
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name the branches of the deep arch (3)

- a plantar digital branch to the lateral side of the little toe
four plantar metatarsal arteries, which supply further plantar digital branches to the
adjacent sides of toes 1 to 5, as well as a branch which anastomoses with the medial
plantar artery
to supply the medial side of the great toe
three perforating arteries which pass between the bases of metatarsals 2 to 5 to
anastomose with arteries on the dorsal aspect of the foot
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by what arteries is the deep plantar arch formed?
lateral plantar artery and dorsalis pedis (deep plantar artery)
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when is the dorsalis pedis palpated best?
what does it mean if it si absent?
dorsiflexion
vasuclar infufficieny  from arterial disease and is one of the 5 signs of acute arteiral occlusion ( pain, pallor, parasthesia, paralysis, pulselessness) but sometmies is is congentially absent
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what are the branches of the dorsalis pedis?

- medial and lateral tarsal arteries
The lateral tarsal artery may join with the arcuate artery to form an anastomotic loop.
•  arcuate artery, gives rise to three dorsal metatarsal arteries which supply dorsal digital arteries to adjacent sides of toes 2 to 5, as well as perforating branches connecting to the deep plantar arch, and a dorsal digital artery that supplies the lateral
side of the little toe

the first dorsal metatarsal artery – the last branch of dorsalis pedis before it becomes the deep plantar artery and passes into the sole of the foot – supplies digital branches to
the medial side of the great toe and adjacent sides of the great and 2nd toes
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Question
a great sapehnous vein
b medial malleolus
c medial marginal vein
d dorsal venous arch (receives dorsal digital veins which drain into dorsal maatarsal veins which also reveie blood form the platnar digital veins)
e lateral malleolus and latal marginal vein
f small saphenous vein
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the posterior tibial artery gives of 2 branch weher one can feel its pulse in the foot. name
medial plantar artery
larger lateral plantar artery
Flashcard set info:
Author: Schnuschnax
Main topic: Medicine
Topic: Anatomy Foot
Published: 20.02.2010
 
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