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All main topics / Politics / General

POLS Test 1 (65 Cards)

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What is the Fundamental Problem of Governance?
conflict is always present

the government is devised to represent and reconcile many diverse problems
Tags: fundamental, governance, problem
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What is Judicial Review?
The court's authority to overturn Federal laws and Executive actions as unconstitutional.
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What is a Federalist?
A believer in a strong National Government with only limited States' Rights.  "Nationalism"
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What is an Anti-Federalist?
A believer in State's Rights. 
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What is institutional durability?
Institutions are resistant to change
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What are institutions resistant to change?
1. Institutions persist beyond the tenure of office

2. the people affected by them make future plans based on expectations and establish a status quo
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What is "Coordination"?
a group must decide individually what they want, what they are prepared to contribute and how to coordinate their efforts

oftentimes leads to the prisoner's dilemma
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What is the Prisoner's Dilemma?
Collusion would yield the best results for both parties, but if they both choose the option that alone would benefit them the most, they will be worse off.  If one chooses the option that would benefit them the most and the other does not, the latter party suffers the most while the former gets the best deal possible.
Tags: dilemma, prisoners
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What is the collective action and what is it's benefit?  Give an example.
Collective action is when multiple parties work together with a common goal.  They all benefit by achieving something that could not be done on their own. 

However, Collective action often comes with costs.  Costs can be shared though; for example tax payers pay for roads.

Examples:
-Police
-Judicial System
-taxing
Tags: action, collective
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What is a transaction cost?
the time/effort/resources required to compare preferences and make collective decisions.  The transaction cost increases with more participants.
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What is the conformity cost? Give an example.
The difference in what you want and what collective society gets or requires.  The cost to the participants to do something they prefer not to.  Citizens naturally prefer lower conformity costs.

Examples:
Paying taxes
Serving in Iraq
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What is the relationship between transaction costs and conformity costs?
They are inversely related. 
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What is Agenda Control?
The capacity to set the choices available to others
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What is Agency loss?
The discrepancy between what citizens ideally would like their agents to do and how the agents actually behave
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What are the differences between the state and federal constitutions?
State Constitutions:
- are wordier
- are more detailed because they have no powers implied (note the 10th and 14th amendments)
-include police power
-include policies that would normally be passed by law
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What does the 10th amendment say?
Anything not expressly granted to the Federal government are granted to the states or the people.

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
Tags: 10, 10th, amendment
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What does the 14th amendment say?
It provides a broad definition of citizenship that better deals with slavery.

Procedural Due Process says that steps such as a hearing or warrant must be obtained before taking a person's "life, liberty, or property." 

Substantive Due Process says that rights must be substantive (existing and not based on tradition) and enumerated.

Equal Protection Clause says that states must provide equal protection under the law for everyone under their jurisdiction.
Tags: 14, 14th amendment, due, process
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Why has the Georgia Constitution been rewritten?  How many times has it been rewritten?
This is the 10th rewrite of the constitution.  Last rewritten in 1983.

Rewritten in order to:
-streamline by incorporating numerous amendments into one document
-eliminate requirements saying that any change in local codes require a constitutional amendment
-to provide for a unified court system
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Why amend or change the Georgia Constitution?
-as an effort to gain political advantage
-b/c it is a state court's decision to change
-b/c it is a nation government requirement to change
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T/F: The governor of Georgia has the responsibility to prepare the state budget and a high veto power.
True: The Governor can "line-item veto."
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What is the Georgia Governor's tenure of office?  Is there a lifetime limit to his/her tenure?
Tenure is 4 years split into 2 terms.  There is not lifetime limit to tenure.
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T/F: The unicameral Georgia General Assembly allows for a 4 year tenure for it's representatives.
False. 

The unicameral Georgia General Assembly allows for a 4 year tenure for it's representatives.

The Assembly is Bicameral (House and Senate) and the tenure is 2 years.
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What two type of courts exist in the Georgia Judicial system?
Trial Courts come in three flavors: Superior, Probate, and Magistrate.  Every county must have each of these.

Appellate Courts contain the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. 
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T/F: State Judges are appointed by the Governor.
False: State Judges are appointed by the voter on a non-partisan ballot.
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What is a special district?  What is an example?
The state may provide any function that it deems necessary to be a public purpose.

For Example:
-Fire Protection
-Sewer Service
-MARTA
-Malls
-School Systems (technically a "Special-Purpose District")
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What is "line-item veto" power?
The power to veto specific parts of a bill and not the entire thing.  This power is only available (at the state level) to the Governor.
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Define "Home Rule." 
The powers given by a state to a locality to enact legislation and manage its affairs locally.  Home Rule can also apply to Britain's administration of the American colonies.
Tags: home, rule
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(Beginning of Chapter 2)  Why did the colonists come to America?
-to escape religious persecution
-to escape class or economic strata/servitude
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What was the Albany Congress?  What did it create?  What were it's lasting effects?
Ben Franklin's "Plan of the Union"

Created a multi-colony tax and militia system. 

This was put to the test during the French and Indian War.  When the British lost, they taxed the colonists heavily to recover their war debt.  This led to the creation of a number of Acts that taxed the colonists.
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What was the Stamp Act?  Why was it important?
Created a tax on everything paper.  Pissed off colonists and gave fuel to the fire that became the American Revolution. 
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What was the Declaratory Act?
It said that GB had the right to make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever". 

Like the Stamp Act, it also spurred the colonists towards revolution.
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Why did Georgia not go to the First Continental Congress?
Georgia needed help from the British to combat Indian uprisings.  Openly criticizing GB could have cut off their military support.
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What were the Intolerable Acts?  What was their purpose?
The name for a series of restrictive acts created by GB for the colonies. 

Four Acts were penned as a response to the Boston Tea Party.  Their purpose was to make an example out of Massachusetts and reverse the trend of colonial resistance to British Parliament. 
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What was the Boston Port Act?  Why were many colonists outraged at its passage?
It closed the port of Boston to trade until the East India Company was repaid and the King was satisfied. 

Many colonists were outraged that the entire city of Boston was punished and not just the few responsible.  Also, the Boston colonists were not given a chance to plead their case. 
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What was the Massachusetts Government Act?  Why was it even more controversial than the Boston Port Act?
It gave the King of England the power to appoint almost all positions of power within Massachusetts' government.

It severely limited the activities that could take place at town hall meetings.  Other colonists outside Massachusetts feared that their State's government could be similarly controlled.
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What was the Quartering Act?
If States did not provide British troops with proper living quarters (with State funding), troops could be quartered in private homes.
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What was achieved at the First Continental Congress?  When was it held?
Held in 1774, the First Continental Congress was called in response to the Intolerable Acts to establish a boycott of British goods, provide a means to enforce the boycott, and if the Intolerable Acts were not repealed, the colonies would enforce a boycott on American exports to GB.

The second main accomplishment was the creation of the Second Continental Congress that was held in 1775. 
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What was achieved at the Second Continental Congress?  When was it held?
Held first in May of 1775, it had several sessions up until 1778.

The Second Continental Congress acted as a de facto government by enacting treaties, passing legislation, creating the Declaration of Independence, creating the Articles of Confederation, and raising an army. 
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In short, what were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
1. Unicameral Legistlature
2. Weak central Government
3. Congress did not have the power to tax
4. Unanimous approval of states required to amend Articles
5. Major laws required 9/13 approval
6. Congress did not have the power to regulate commerce
7. Created a loose confederation of independent states (Important)
8. No Judicial branch
9. No Executive
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What was Shays' Rebellion and what did it accomplish?
Poor farmers, angered by extreme debt, taxes, and the treat of debtors prison, rebelled against court seizures of land and attempted to raid the Springfield Armory.  A militia was put together to stop them, however there was a lack of central response due to the Articles' weaknesses.

Shays' rebellion created a clamor for reform that led to the current constitution. 
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What was the Virginia Plan?
A plan that help shift the tide from revision of the Articles to complete change.  It favored larger states with it's upper house chosen by the lower house.  It also infringed on States' Rights.

What it did right:
-Bicameral Legislature

What it did wrong:
-made National Government too powerful
-if a state fails its obligations, military force cold be used

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What was the New Jersey Plan?
Favored small states.  Created a Unicameral Legislature giving one vote per state.

What it did wrong:
-Unicameral Legislature
-No Executive or Judiciary
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What was the Great Compromise?
It created/did right:
-Senate (2 representatives per state)
-House (Proportional representation)
-Commerce Clause
-got rid of unanimous decision
-required a majority to pass legistlation
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What was the Necessary and Proper Clause?
Congress shall have whatever authority is necessary and proper to carry out its functions.
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What was the Commerce Clause?
National Government is given the power to regulate commerce thereby decreasing competition among states.
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What three features were put in place by Madison and Hamilton to provide checks and balances to the Executive Branch?
1. Take Care Clause (the President "shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed.")

2. Legislative check (veto) is applied to President

3. The President can veto as a check to the legislative body
Tags:
Source: page 70-71
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What was the Supremacy Clause?
Federal Government laws take precedence over State laws.
Tags:
Source: pg. 72
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What is the Electoral College?  How does it work?
Tries to mix state, congressional, and popular participation in the voting process.  Each state gets as many electors as it has representatives of the House and Senate.  Citizens vote and the electors take the distribution of Citizen votes into account as they submit their votes in the electoral college.

270 (a majority) Electoral votes are required to elect a President.  If 270 votes are not reached by any one candidate, the top 3 are voted on in the House of Representatives.  Each State then gets one vote where a majority is needed.
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What is a logroll?
A bargaining strategy where two sides swap support for dissimilar policies.
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What were the Federalist Essays?
Essays rewritten at a fast pace meant to support the ratification of the Constitution.  They were written at such a fast pace (up to 4 a week per person) that once the Antifederalists were done rebutting one argument several more had appeared.
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What did the Federalist #10 refer to (in brief)?
The "large republic" cannot survive argument that the Antifederalists put forth.  It offers a solution to the danger of tyranny.
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What did the Federalist # 51 say (in brief)?
Separate offices have a check on one another.
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What is Pluralism?
Society has many diverse interests, but those most affected by public policy will have the greatest say in what the policy will be.
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What is an externality?
An effect felt by more people than just the one who chose to cause it.
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Define Federalism.
Federalism is a hybrid between a confederation (where lower level governments possess primary authority) and a unitary government (where the federal gov. monopolizes constitutional authority).
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What is Dual Federalism?
States and the Federal Government preside over mutually exclusive spheres of infuence. 
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What is Shared Federalism (aka Cooperative Federalism)?
The National and State Governments jointly supply services to the citizenry.  The US is better categorized as a Shared Federalism.
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What is nationalization?
It shifted the "indefinite" authority Madison assigned to State Governments to the national side.
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What are the enumerated powers?
Powers conceded to the National Government. 

Example:
Postal system makes much more sense as a national system rather than 13 individual systems stitched together.
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What is the elastic clause?
It allows Congress to "make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing powers." 
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What is the 10th Amendment?
The powers not given to the Federal Government are to belong to the State and Citizenry.
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What is a Block Grant?
A block of money is given to a State by the Federal Government to do something.  If it is not all used, the savings stay with the Federal Government.  The State can choose to expand that something, but it is with their own money. 

It's just a block of money for a certain purpose.
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What is a Matching Grant?
The Federal Government will match State Expenditure on a project  at a ratio of (usually) between 1:1-2 (state : federal)
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What is an unfunded mandate?
I'm sorry, but you're retarded if you don't know what this is after writing an essay about it.
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What is Preemption Legislation?
They are Federal laws that assert the National Governments prerogative to control Public Policy in a particular way.
Flashcard set info:
Author: Trixdawabbit
Main topic: Politics
Topic: General
School / Univ.: UGA
City: Athens
Published: 03.03.2010
Tags: Professor Haynes POLS Test 1
 
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