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Alle Oberthemen / Teaching / Reading

Reading (47 Karten)

Sag Danke
L2 readers
L2 reading can be quite different from L1 reading
- learn to read mostly at the same time they learn the language orally
- no resource of several thousand words stored in their heads
- lack of tacit L2 grammatical knowledge + discourse knowledge
- sometimes they r not fully aware with overall genre expectations of
  certain types of texts (newspaper, biographies, …): information
  can be accessed easier

- greater awareness of the L2
- a big part of the students’ L2 knowledge results from direct
  classroom instruction: development of a greater metalinguistic

- mostly not exposed t enough L2 print to built fluent processing/ to
  built large recognition vocab.
- they come with linguistic knowledge of their L1 can become a source of interference
- while learning to read L2 readers have to broaden their linguistic
  knowledge simultaneously: deal with transfer effects, learn to
  use L2-specific resources (translation, glosses, bilingual
  dictionaries, …)

The engagement model of reading
teachers can increase reading engagement in the classroom by building a context for it
- real world interaction
- Autonomy support
- Interesting text
- strategy instruction
- collaboration
social discourse among students in a learning community/ see perspectivesand construct knowledge socially from a text/ motivating

- teacher involvement
- rewards and praise
- evaluation
- coherence
- conceptual orientation
Praise and reward
- encouraging effort and attention
- informative compliments
- if leaners interpret praise as manipulative, their motivation may
  decline as they feel like being treated as objects
- should be interpreted as recognition of achievement, it can
  increase students' self-perceived competence + motivation

Praise should be 3S - 3P
praise that is sincere, specific, sufficient and properly given for praiseworthy success in the manner preferred by the learner
highly objective and standardize test
- easy to admister, score and report
- fail to refelct students motivation, reading practise

highly student-centered and personalized portfolios
- support student motivation
- reflect better what students really achieved
- difficult to administer and report

BEST: a combination of these two
Teacher involvement
- involved teachers know about their students interest, knowledge

- holds realistic, positive goals for students' effort and learning

- significant benefit for student engagement

- reciprocal: student engagement affected teachers involvement as
  much as teacher involvement influenced student engagement
Real world interaction
intrinsically motivating context (hands on activities combined with texts

- evoke intrinsically motivated behaviors (alert, attentive, excited)
- this creates occasion for active learning, acquisition of relevant 
- although this motivation is situationally/ contextually limited can be
  generalized to new topics and texts
- hands-on activities + with reading on texts fosters motivation
- hands- on activities motivate the students to read deeply, increase
  their conceptual learning from text
Autonomy support
- choice is motivating because it affords students with control
- children seek to be in control of their environment rather than bein
  manipulated by others
- children need choice to develop independence
- linked to the condition of students discovering interesting texts
  through self-selected reading
-  support for self directed learning

- teachers should provide:
a choice of text and task (atonomy support, self-selected reading, self-direction)

social interaction (relatedness support)

activity connections (competence support)

Interesting texts for instruction
- texts should be relevant to the learning and knowledge goals being

- texts should match the cognitive competence of the learners

- by using interesting texts support the motivational processes of
  astery orientation and autonomy
Strategy instruction
- explicit teyching of behavior that enables students to acquire
  relevant knowledge from text

- teacher modeling, scaffolding, direct explanation why strategies are
  valuable and how/ when to use them

Engaged readers
intrinsically motivated to read for knowledge and enjoyment
a state of total absorption/ FLOW
- seek to understand

- enjoy learning

- believe in their reading ablilities

- mastery oriented

- intrinsically motivated

- confident

the more highly engaged readers showed higher achievement than the less engaged readers
can even compensate for a low family income or educational background
Learning-goal oriented
- dedicated to understand the context

- using strategies effectively

- linking their new knowledge to previous experiences

Teachers' learning goal orientation in the classroom fostered their students self efficacy when students believed that teachers thought that understanding the work is mre important than simply answering correctly, students were likely to believe in their capacity

they are likely to be more highly engaged than other students

in contrast to performance oriented (less engaged in learning)
Regrettably, motivation for reading decreases as children go through school
Explanation I
- capacity of children understanding their own performances
- they become more sophisticated at processing the evaluative
  feedback they receive
- for some this leads to a growing realization that they aren't as
  capable as others

Explanation II
- focuses on how instructional practices may contribute to a decline
  in some children's motivation
- too much competition, no interesting topics can lead to declines in
  competence beliefs/ intrinsic motivation and raise of extrinsic
extensive reading
one of the ways of teaching reading
-  reading rapidly
- reading ‘book after book’
- attention on the content and not on the language
- contrasted it with intensive reading (take a text, study it line by line)
- text were clearly being read for the purpose of language study
- texts being read for ordinary real-world purposes of pleasure +

real-world reading but for pedagogical purpose
a definition of extensive reading is hard to find, that is why certain characteristics can be described
The characteristics of an extensive reading approach
- students read as much as possible (in and outside the classroom)
- a variety of material/ topics is available
- students select what they want to read and have the freedom to
  stop reading material that fails to interest them
- purpose of reading: pleasure, information, general understanding
- reading is its own reward. There are few or no follow-up exercises
- dictionaries are rarely used
- no material that is too difficult
- reading is individual and silent (student’s own pace)
- reading speed is faster as they read material they enjoy
- teacher is a role model
one simple definition

‘reading is the construction of meaning from a printed or written message.’
the readers has to connect infrmation from the written message with previous knowledge to arrive at meaning/ understanding
reading as an interaction of a variety of processes
- automatic recognition of vocab frees the mind to use several
  simultaneous processes involving reasoning, knowledge of the world and knowledge of the topic to construct meaning

- automatic wordrecognition = basis of fluent reading sight vocab
BUT: efficient word recognition seems to be a necessary but not sufficient  condition for good comprehension
- automatic recognition allows lexical access automatic calling up from memory of the word’s meaning + phonological representation
draws on the reader’s prior knowledge of the language, of the world, of text type and of the topic

these various knowledge elements interact with one another to build meaning
Fluent second language reading depends on ....
The development of sight vocab
overlearning words to the point that they are automatically recognized in their printed form, readers have to encounter repeatedly words in which they have some familiarity, familiarity breeds automaticity
Krashen: i(the reader’s current level) minus 1
for further acquisition to take place, the comprehensible input has to contain elements that are slightly beyond ‘i’

The development of general vocab knowledge
second language students must read and read some more both to learn words from context through multiple encounters and to become better readers so that incidental vocab learning becomes easier
The development of different knowledge types
increases word-meaning knowledge but can also produce gains in topical and world knowledge that can further facilitate reading comprehension 
Text type
- they are subject to change, they are not set in concrete
- poor attitudes can be changed
- yet attempts may not always be successful

- teachers should be aware of the positive/ negative attitudes of their
  pupils towards L2 reading
- awareness of a negative attitude and its source may help
  compensate or even eliminate the bias

4 sources of students attitude towards L2 reading
1. L1 reading attitude
2. previous experiences with learning to read other L2 (if any)
3. attitude toward the L2 language, culture, people
4. L2 classroom environment (teacher, classmates, approach to +
   support for L2 reading, ongoing experiences in L2 reading)
Extensive reading and attitude
- through reading about L2 language, people, culture the students
   attitude toward L2 might improve
- motivation as students are allowed to choose material according to
  their own interests
- it's the ongoing experiences of extensive L2 reading that have the
  most potential to establish positive attitudes towards L2 reading
- extensive reading gives students some kind of freedom + herewith
   responsibility for their own learning : AUTONOMY IN LEARNING
- decide WHAT to read
- WHEN to read
- WHERE to read
- HOW to read
- to stop reading if the material doesn’t suit interests of the students

motivation (easily to confuse with attitude) is what makes people do (or not do) something
how interesting, linguistic level, attractiveness, availability
no demotivation in extensive reading programs as students can read material suitable to their reading ability
toward reading in the L2
including influence of family and friends, an extensive reading approach creates a classroom environment that values and encourages reading. Such an environment can counteract the influence of society, family, friends, …

The extensive reading bookstrap hypothesis
- student’s initial successful experiences in extensive reading results i
   in the discovery that they can read in the L2 and that it is rewarding
   and pleasurable

- that stimulates the development of positive attitudes towards
  reading in the L2

- growth of motivation

- may result in flow experiences
To understand a text a reader must be able to distinguish between
- important and unimportant point
- fact and opinion
- relevance nad irrelevance
- valid and invalid inference
- hypothesis, evidence, inference, conclusion
- causes, effects, purposes, conditions
Linguistic and processing differences between L1 and L2 readers
1. Different amounts of lexical, grammatical and discourse
    knowledge at initial stages of L1 and L2 reading
2. Greater metalinguistic + metacognitive awareness in L2 settings
3. Different amounts of exposures to L2 reading
4. Varying linguistic differences across any two languages
5. Varying L2 proficiency as a foundation for L2 reading
6. Varying language transfer influences
7. Interacting influence of working with two languages
    there are always 2 languages involved in L2 comprehension
        processes (inevitable interplay); this influences word
       recognition, reading rate, organization of the mental lexicon,
       strategies for comprehension, …

Individual and experimental differences for L1 and L2 readers
1. Differing levels of L1 reading abilities
students who are weak in L1 literacy abilities cannot be expected to transfer many supporting resources to L2 reading contexts

2. Differing motivations for reading in the L2
varying underlying attitudes toward L2 reading: often linked to past educational experiences in L1 + L2 contexts

3. Differing kinds of texts in L2 contexts
L1 +L2 readers are likely to have different experiences with various text genres: they develop diverse approaches to the range of texts they encounter

4. Differing language resources for L2 readers
there are unique + distinct resources for L2 students: bilingual dictionary, glosses, translation, cultural background resources in L2 contexts
neither of these resources is typical for L1 literacy learning
Socio-cultural and institutional differences influencing L1 and L2 reading development
reading development and reading instruction are strongly influenced by parental and community attitudes toward reading and uses of literacy

1. Differing socio-cultural backgrounds of L2 readers
L2 reading depends on the L1 socialisation; assumptions about how to use text resources also tend to differ; some students might therefore encounter difficulties in reading texts for purposes that don’t complement cultural assumptions

2. Differing ways of organising discourse and texts
L2 text resources may not always be organised in ways that match students’ L1 reading experiences

3. Differing expectations of L2 educational institutions
L2 students are shaped in their assumptions and their performances by their previous L1 institutional experiences
L1 readers
- most of them first learn to read after they have been learning their
  L1 orally for 4-5 years
- their vocab knowledge when starting to read roughly 5.000 – 7.000
- not such a great metalinguistic/ metacognitive awareness like L2
  readers. more tacit knowledge of their native language

reading in the target language and in L1:

each teacher's work will complement the others'.
So work done in either language will benefit the other if similar approaches are used.
Reading skills are better developed first in the L1 so L2 can built on it.

Making students WANT to read
- you'll never succeed to get all students motivated BUT most of them
- make sure plenty of enjoyable books are available
- it's more useful to read a lot of easy books than a few difficult ones
- as we expect students to read on their own: readability and
suitability of content are most important
- S A V E
Weak readers
- provide a lot of very easy material
which improves their speed with little help
- initial stage: oral approach  even though the goal is silent reading
- should get help from home
- paired reading
- listening to taped recordings while following the text in the book

time and genuine concern for the reader's progress
reading card
text with questions (+pictures)

- successfully reading a short and easy card encourages to read
  more difficult cards or even a book  the book should be on an
  easier level that the last card

- material must be NEW to the students
- supply answer cards so that students can check on their own
- you need a great many

reading laboratories = a collection of reading cards
text-based lesson
- find out ehat potential the text offers
- activities for a text-based lesson
general reading efficiency: skimming, scanning, rapid reading,
   use of reference apparatus

- students should achieve a glbal understanding
- start with using a top-down approach (later you can switch)
Guidance before reading
1. provide a reason for reading
in real life we don’t normally read without a purpose
2. introdusing the text
should make students want to read the texts, extra information to make the texts easier to understand, shouldn't be a monologue of the teacher, ...
3. setting a top-down task
first getting an overall understanding, predictions on a text, ...
4. breaking up the text internal differentiation of learner groups; weak ones discouraged, strong: bored
any breakup is better than none for the first work on it; ideal for intensive work, ...
5. dealing with new language controversial issue
some words should be pre-taught, yet a long list of new words indicator that text is too difficult. Look for opportunities for presenting key language items during introduction. better than isolated presentation
6. Asking sign post questions

3 kinds of class organization
The individual mode
each tsudent works on his own
each students works on his own text

The teacher-centered class
one text
tackling of the text largely controlled by the teacher
adavntage: interaction keeps teacher continually aware of problems

:) insight about the way students read, questions you ask respond more sensitively to students needs thas is poosible if they have to be written down before hand

motivation high
individuals participate more actively
:)  students can help each other, competition between groups, tasks must be explicit, mixed or streamed groups?
Criteria for evaluating texts for reading development
Suitability of content
text should interest the readers
help students to develop interpretive strategies
integrating reading skills
simulatin real life purposes
Readibility  structural ans lexical difficulty
right level
mow much new vocab?
structural difficulty
sentence length + complexity

Most importat of all: familiarity of the topic, cultural background, conceptual complexity, the interst it has for the reader
Can questions help?
Definately helpful to the teacher
as the comprehension process of the students is invisible
getting an insight into students mind

For students
it's the process that lead to an answer which is crucial: a right answer by accident is valueless

Discussion is the key, i.e. the value lies not so much in the questions themselves but in the way they are used. TEacher keeps discussion on track

we shouldn't be interested in the form of the student's reply as long as it's understood
Type of questions
true/ false questions
present a statement
most limited
can promote discussion

most difficult type to devise

Open-ended questions
students can give any respnse that they consider suitable
answers can't be assessed objectively
hard to built answers in L2 (accept L1)
easy to devise
force the student to think for themselves
Types of question: what are we to ask about?
Questions of literal comprehension
directly + explicitly expressed in the text
Questions involving reorganization or reinterpretation
reinterpret literal information
Questions of inference
what is impelled but not explicitly stated, reader has to understand the text well enough to work out its implications
Questions of evaluation
what is the writer trying to do and ho far did he achieve it
Questions of personal response
students explain why it makes them feel as they do
Questions concerned with how writers say what they mean
intended to gve students strategies for handling texts in general, making students aware of word-/ text-attack-skills
Differenences between teaching & testing
done without support
more pressure of time, tasks have to be set clearly as students have to understand them
disriminate between students
often designed to be too difficult for some students, but its no necessary condition for a test
criterion-referenced/ mastery test shows students what they know
progress/ achievement test desiged to let most of the students pass
failure - discourage - low self-esteem - doubting their ability to ever learn the L2 - reject the L2 as being too difficult--

pedagogic sense to make test deliberatley easy
Tests have consequences that teaching activities haven't. Important consequences: STRESS/ PREASURE
Why test?
they should reveal things the teacher didn't know before, tests for confirmation are senseless
Placement test
to identify the sort of texts which a students will find readable
Tests for diagnosis
identify strength, weaknesses
Progress test
has a student learnt what the teacher intended?
Achievement tests
typically used to pass/ fail students at the end of course/ year
Proficiency tests
selects candidates for higher education

If there is no purpose for testing NO tests should be given//
Breaking up a text
- it's easier to hold students interest: one part read silently, another 
  one by the teacher, another one aloud

- leads to more effective learning: interpretation becomes steadily
  easier as it builds on the understanding of earlier sections, what
  happens in the next section (predictions?)

not every section needs to be studied as closely

here it's easy to forget that the object is to udertsand the whole text
Greater metalinguistic and metacognitive awareness in L2 settings
metalinguistic awareness and reflection of language
our knowledge of HOW language works: letters - sounds, texts - genres, sentences - and their parts
- often develop a greater awareness of the L2 itself as part of their
  reading resources
- unlike the tacit knowledge of L1 learners, L2 learners are often able
  to discuss/ reflect on the linguistic resources available to them that
  they use to assist comprehension

metacognitive awareness
our knowledge of what we know; a basic way to understand learning startegies; conscious use of reading strategies
- pre-planning, on-line planning, post-evaluation. Such strategies
  allow the learner to control their own cognition by coordinating the
  planning, organizing and evaluations of the learning process.
Knowledge includes....
declarative knowledge
i.e. WHAT we know

procedural/ conditional knowledge
i.e. HOW we use this knowledge
different L1 in same L2 learning classroom
- it depends on the L1 to which parts of the L2 (suffixes, morphemes,
  …) the learners pay greater attention to
- these differences lead to variation in reading rates + fluency in word
- is there a great deal of shared vocab?

understanding more about a student’s L1 literacy skills + orthography may help explain possible difficulties in word recognition, fluency and reading rate
Threshold Hypothesis (Jim Cummin)
Lesen in L2 hängt von Sprachkompetenz in L2 ab
well developped L1 = condition for success in school, especially in foreign language learning
- L2 proficiency plays a large role as a foundation for L2 reading
- if students cannot read well in their L1 , they will be unable to read
  will in their L2
- enough L2 knowledge (vocab., structure) needs to be known so that
  L1 reading strategies and skills can be used effectively to help
  comprehend the L2 text
- language knowledge is more important than L1 reading abilities
- threshold will vary depending on the reader, the text and the topic

Lesen in L2 hängt von Lesefähigkeit der L1 ab
Reading Comprehension. A complex process
knowledge of the graphemes and phonemes

semantic knowledge

syntactic knowledge

contextual knowledge
a uniquely L2 topic
- may support comprehension but  also may interfere with
  comprehension transfer as interference is typically assumed to
  influence beginning + intermediate levels of L2 reading as they use
  every source available to them for comprehension

- transfer can occur with phonological, topical, general background knowledge, problem-solving strategies, inferencing skills
- beginning L2 levels:
students’ strongest resources are their L1 language + reading abilities, their knowledge of the world
- latter situations:
give students enough vocab, reading practise so that they will rely less on L1 resources that might interfere
- make sure that students don’t always have to read texts that are
  too difficult for them
- advanced reading levels:
make students aware that they need to have a purpose for reading, explore goals for L2 reading
Positive transfer
- valuable resources for L2 reading development
- that requires well developed literacy abilities in the student’s L1
- effective strategies
- appropriate purposes
- …
- provides a mean for accelerated development of L2 reading 
   abilities when assisted by instruction and teacher guidance
Autor: isipixi
Oberthema: Teaching
Thema: Reading
Veröffentlicht: 18.05.2010
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