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Alle Oberthemen / Business Economics / Behavior, Managment and Organisation

BMO (565 Karten)

Sag Danke
1
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0
Which of the following is not one of the nine basic abilities involved in the performance of
physical tasks?
A) stamina
B) dynamic flexibility
C) speed
D) body coordination
E) trunk strength
c)

See p. 81, Exhibit 2-2
2
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Which of the following generalizations about organizational structures and employee performance and satisfaction is most accurate?

A) There is fairly strong evidence linking decentralization and job satisfaction.
B) No evidence supports a relationship between span of control and employee performance.
C) The evidence generally indicates that work specialization contributes to lower employee
productivity.
D) Employees dislike routine work that makes minimal intellectual demands.
E) Large spans of control provide more distant supervision, thereby increasing employee
productivity.
b
3
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Consultants Exceptional (CE) has hired you to develop training materials for their consultants. Your first assignment is todevelop a training program that helps their consultants to analyze and understand the organizational structure of the company that they are assisting. CE believes that in order to adequately evaluate and understand a client company,
consultants need to understand the basic organizational structure of the company. Consultants are then able to
recommend actions and changes based on the company’s structure.


One of the questions you tell the trainees to ask is, “To what degree are tasks subdivided into
separate jobs?” This question addresses the issue of .
A) formalization
B) work specialization
C) span of control
D) chain of command
E) matrix restructuring
b
4
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.... is addressed by asking the question “On what basis are jobs grouped together?”

A) Departmentalization
B) Work specialization
C) Centralization and decentralization
D) Formalization
E) Matrix restructuring
a
5
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Your trainees are given a case study concerning a local manufacturing firm called Acme Products. In assessing Acme’s organizational structure, your trainees notice that all of the company’s decisions are made by top management, with little or no input from lower-level
personnel. The trainees most likely identify Acme as a(n) organization.

A) decentralized
B) highly formalized
C) aggressively managed
D) highly centralized
E) informally structured
d
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The Acme Products case study notes that the senior management at Acme is concerned because the company takes so long to bring new products to market. Which of the following approaches would your trainees identify as most likely to help resolve this problem?

A) reduction of cross-functional work teams
B) decentralization of the decision-making process
C) decreased work specialization
D) decreased formalization of policies and procedures
E) reduced diversity within the company’s work force
c
7
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You instruct the trainees to ask about the degree of rules and regulations that direct employees
and managers. You want to help them understand the ....
A) chain of command
B) degree of formalization
C) span of control
D) degree of departmentalization
E) idea of matrix restructuring
b
8
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You have divided the jobs performed by your department through work specialization and are now trying to decide how to best group these jobs to improve efficiency and customer service. You are considering whether to group activities by function, product, process, geography, or customer.

You have decided that since you are a novice at departmentalization, you will go with the most
popular method. You will probably choose....
A) function
B) product
C) process
D) customer
E) matrix
a
9
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Your company decides to establish southern, Midwestern, western, and eastern zones of operation. Based on this expansion, you decide to implement ...departmentalization.

A) area
B) customer
C) geography
D) regional
E) matrix
c
10
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Your products fall into several categories with very different production methods for each category. Because of this, you might consider departmentalizing by .
A) implementation
B) method
C) production
D) process
E) matrix
d
11
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You discover that your market is clearly divided between very different types of clients, with different support needs. To respond to this market diversity, you will probably choose to departmentalize by ....
A) requirements
B) clients
C) support
D) customer
E) matrix
d
12
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Matthew is a new divisional manager. In reorganizing his division, he must make some decisions regarding the span of control for management within his division.
The question of span of control determines ....

A) who reports to whom
B) the number of levels and managers an organization has
C) where decisions are made
D) how jobs will be grouped
E) how employees will be compensated
b
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Which of the following is a benefit of keeping the span of control to 5 or 6 employees?
A) It is expensive.
B) Vertical communication is more complex.
C) Decision making is slowed down.
D) Upper management is more available and in-touch.
E) none of the above
e
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In observing the departments in his division, Matthew notices that some managers with wide spans of control seem to perform more effectively than other managers with similarly-sized spans of control. Which of the following statements is most likely true regarding the
high-performing managers?
A) These managers are paid higher salaries than the low-performing managers.
B) These managers discourage employee autonomy, which produces more uniform
departmental results.
C) The employees within their departments tend to compete to reach productivity goals, which boosts performance.
D) The employees within their departments have poor communication with each other.
E) The employees within their departments are highly skilled and very knowledgeable about
their jobs.
c
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You are interested in explaining the different types of organizational designs to students of basic management. These students need to know the advantages and disadvantages of each structure as well as the structure’s characteristics. You describe a structure that is flat, has little formalization, and is fast, flexible, and inexpensive
to maintain. You are describing the ...

A) matrix structure
B) simple structure
C) bureaucracy
D) team structure
E) organizational pyramid
b
16
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You extol the virtues and benefits of standardization. You are probably promoting the ...

A) matrix structure
B) simple structure
C) bureaucracy
D) team structure
E) organizational pyramid
c
17
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The structure that combines functional and product departmentalization is the ....

A) matrix structure
B) simple structure
C) bureaucracy
D) team structure
E) organizational pyramid
a
18
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You describe to your students a new committee within the university that brings together specialists from all different departments to develop a new interdisciplinary program. The structure probably best meets the definition of the ...

A) matrix structure
B) expert structure
C) boundaryless structure
D) virtual structure
E) organizational pyramid
d
19
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You describe to your students a new committee within the university that brings together specialists from all different departments to develop a new interdisciplinary program. The structure probably best meets the definition of the ....

A) matrix structure
B) expert structure
C) boundaryless structure
D) virtual structure
E) organizational pyramid
d
20
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You assign your students a project that involves developing a business plan for a retail store. The store will have 200 employees and will serve customers both locally and internationally via a storefront and an Internet catalogue. Which of the following organizational designs is least
likely to benefit the goals of this retail store?

A) matrix
B) virtual
C) bureaucracy
D) team
E) simple
e
21
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You have learned about the traditional and new design options for organizational structures. You have decided that one of the designs developed during the last decade or two is probably the most appropriate for your newly-formed organization.
You have decided to hire other organizations to perform many of the basic functions of your business. You have hired an accounting firm to keep your records, a recruiting firm to handle human resource functions, and a computer firm to handle all records. To keep costs down, you are looking for other areas in which to outsource operations. You have chosen to operate your
business as a ....

A) matrix organization
B) virtual organization
C) team structure
D) boundaryless structure
E) organizational pyramid
b
22
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Your new organization is looking for maximum flexibility. The most appropriate structure is probably the ....

A) matrix organization
B) virtual organization
C) team structure
D) network structure
E) organizational pyramid
a
23
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You have eliminated horizontal, vertical, and external barriers within your organization. You are operating as a ....

A) matrix organization
B) virtual organization
C) team structure
D) boundaryless organization
E) organizational pyramid
d
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The _of an environment refers to the degree of heterogeneity and concentration among
environmental elements.
A) density
B) simplicity
C) complexity
D) intricacy
E) permeability
c
Tags:
Quelle: p.572
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Volatility refers to the degree of _ within an environment.
A) support
B) instability
C) flexibility
D) resources
E) pressures
b
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Quelle: p.571
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The .... of an environment refers to the degree to which it can support growth.
A) capacity
B) qualifications
C) potential
D) capability
E) permeability
a
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Quelle: p.571
27
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Several key dimensions to any organization’s environment have been found. Which of the
following is one of these key dimensions?
A) productivity
B) complexity
C) interdependence
D) alignment
E) collaboration
b
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Quelle: p.571
28
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Which of the following is not part of an organization’s environment?
A) public pressure groups
B) customers
C) personnel
D) competitors
E) the media
c
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29
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___ refers to how an organization transfers its inputs into outputs.
A) Production
B) Technology
C) Operations
D) Process
E) Effectiveness
b
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Quelle: p.570
30
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A company oriented around cost minimization is best served by which type of structure?
A) virtual
B) combination
C) mechanistic
D) organic
E) targeted
c
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Quelle: p.569
31
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The innovation strategy is characterized by....
A) unorthodox structures
B) a mixture of loose and tight properties
C) low specialization and low formalization
D) high technology
E) simple structure
c
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Quelle: p.569
32
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A strategy that emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services is a(n)
strategy.
A) innovation
B) enhancement
C) progressive
D) organic
E) matrix
a
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Quelle: p.569
33
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Which of the following is not a determinant of an organization’s structure?
A) strategy
B) organization size
C) size of revenues
D) technology
E) All of the above are determinants of an organization’s structure.
c
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Quelle: p.568
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All of the following are characteristics of the organic model except ....
A) cross-functional teams
B) narrow spans of control
C) cross-hierarchical teams
D) employee discretion
E) flatness
B) narrow spans of control

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Quelle: p.568
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If there is low formalization, a comprehensive information network, and high participation in
decision making, one would expect a(n) .... structure.
A) simple
B) mechanistic
C) organic
D) stable
E) matrix
c
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The _ is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization,
a limited information network, and centralization.
A) mechanistic model
B) organic model
C) traditional model
D) bureaucracy organization
E) simple structure
a
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Quelle: p.568
37
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The boundaryless organization relies heavily on ___.
A) information technology
B) efficient chains of command
C) the simple structure
D) the matrix structure
E) departmentalization
a
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Quelle: p.556
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The major advantage of the virtual organization is its.....
A) control
B) predictability
C) flexibility
D) empowerment
E) complexity
c)
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Quelle: p.556
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The virtual organization stands in sharp contrast to the typical bureaucracy that has many
vertical levels of management and where control is sought through ....
A) ownership
B) teams
C) imposing limits
D) directives
E) manipulation
a)
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Quelle: p.556
40
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The prototype of the virtual structure is today’s .....
A) appliance manufacturers
B) movie-making organizations
C) fast-food restaurants
D) architecture firms
E) simple organization
b)
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Quelle: p.564
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A small, core organization that outsources major business functions is a .... organization.
A) team
B) virtual
C) boundaryless
D) matrix
E) simple
b)
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Quelle: p.564
42
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The virtual is also called the ... or ... organization.
A) network; modular
B) team; social
C) pyramid; multi-level
D) boundaryless; global
E) simple; unitary
a)
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Quelle: p.564
43
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Which one of the following problems is most likely to occur in a matrix structure?
A) decreased response to environmental change
B) decreased employee motivation
C) loss of economies of scale
D) increases in groupthink
E) employees receiving conflicting directives
e
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Quelle: p.564
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The major disadvantage of the matrix structure is __.
A) the confusion it creates
B) its propensity to foster power struggles
C) the stress it places on individuals
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
a
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Quelle: p.562
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The strength of the matrix structure is its ....
A) ability to facilitate coordination
B) economies of scale
C) adherence to chain of command
D) standardization
E) social empowerment
a
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Quelle: p.564
46
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The ___structure violates the unity of command concept.
A) simple B) virtual C) matrix D) team E) web
c
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Quelle: p.563
47
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The matrix structure combines which two forms of departmentalization?
A) process and functional
B) functional and product
C) product and process
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
b
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Quelle: p.536
48
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The structure that creates dual lines of authority is the ....
A) organizational structure
B) bureaucracy
C) matrix structure
D) virtual organization
E) simple structure
c
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Quelle: p.536
49
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Which of the following is not a weakness of the simple structure?
A) It is risky.
B) It is prone to information overload.
C) There is little unity of command.
D) It can lead to slower decision making.
E) It is often insufficient in larger organizations.
c
Tags:
Quelle: p.560
50
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The strength of the simple structure lies in its ....
A) efficiency
B) simplicity
C) centralization
D) span of control
E) specialization
b
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Quelle: p.560
51
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A bureaucracy is characterized by all of the following except ...
A) highly routine operating tasks
B) formalized rules and regulations
C) tasks that are grouped into functional departments
D) decentralized decision making
E) specialization
d
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Quelle: p.561
52
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The key component underlying bureaucracies is ...
A) flexibility
B) standardization
C) dual lines of authority
D) wide span of control
E) the organizational pyramid
b
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Quelle: p.561
53
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The simple structure is most widely practiced in small businesses in which ....
A) the owner also manages the company
B) management is limited to one individual
C) managers have a high degree of influence with the company’s owner
D) managers are hired directly by the company’s owner
E) training budgets are limited
a
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Quelle: p.560
54
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A __-is a flat organization.
A) bureaucracy
B) centralized structure
C) matrix structure
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
e)

Simple structure is flat organization- hasnt been listed.
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Quelle: p.560
55
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Which one of the following is consistent with a simple structure?
A) high centralization
B) high horizontal differentiation
C) high employee discretion
D) standardization
E) bureaucracy
a
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Quelle: p.560
56
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___ is characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control,
authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization.
A) Bureaucracy
B) Matrix organization
C) Simple structure
D) Team structure
E) Centralized structure
c)
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Quelle: p.560
57
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Which of the following is not a common organizational design?
A) simple structure
B) bureaucracy
C) centralized structure
D) matrix structure
E) none of the above
e)
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Quelle: p.560
58
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Employee discretion is inversely related to __.
A) complexity
B) standardization
C) specialization
D) departmentalization
E) empowerment
b
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Quelle: p.559
59
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If a job is highly formalized, it would not include which of the following?
A) clearly defined procedures on work processes
B) explicit job description
C) high employee job discretion
D) a large number of organizational rules
E) a consistent and uniform output
c
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Quelle: p.558
60
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The more that lower-level personnel provide input or are actually given the discretion to make
decisions, the more .... there is within an organization.
A) centralization
B) disempowerment
C) work specialization
D) departmentalization
E) decentralization
e
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Quelle: p.558
61
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In an organization that has high centralization, __.
A) the corporate headquarters is located centrally to branch offices
B) all top level officials are located within the same geographic area
C) action can be taken more quickly to solve problems
D) new employees have a great deal of legitimate authority
E) top managers make all the decisions and lower level managers merely carry out directions
e
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Quelle: p.558
62
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The best definition for centralization is a situation in which decision making .
A) is pushed down to lower level employees
B) is concentrated at a single point in the organization
C) depends on the situation
D) is completed in each department and then sent to the president for review
E) is diffused among a large segment of employees
b
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Quelle: p.558
63
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Which one of the following dichotomies of organizational structure specifically defines where
decisions are made?
A) complexity/simplicity
B) formalization/informalization
C) centralization/decentralization
D) specialization/enlargement
E) affectivity/reflexivity
c)
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Quelle: p.558
64
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___ are consistent with recent efforts by companies to reduce costs, cut overhead, speed up
decision making, increase flexibility, get closer to customers, and empower employees.
A) Wider spans of control
B) Narrower spans of control
C) Matrix structures
D) Simple structures
E) None of the above
a
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Quelle: p.558
65
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The trend in recent years has been toward __.
A) narrower spans of control
B) wider spans of control
C) a span of control of four
D) an ideal span of control of six to eight
E) eliminating spans of control in favor of team structures
b
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Quelle: p.558
66
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If you have a narrow span of control, you have a(n) ... organization.
A) efficient B) short C) tall D) matrix E) fat
b)
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Quelle: p.558
67
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Which of the following is not a drawback of a narrow span of control?
A) It is expensive.
B) It makes vertical communication in the organization more complex.
C) Supervisors may lose control of their employees.
D) It encourages overly tight supervision.
E) It helps increase organizational efficiency.
c)

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Quelle: p.558
68
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Which of the following is a drawback of a narrow span of control? It ___.
A) reduces effectiveness
B) is more efficient
C) encourages overly tight supervision and discourages employee autonomy
D) empowers employees
E) increases participatory decision-making
c
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Quelle: p.558
69
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The __ refers to the number of subordinates that a manager directs.
A) span of control
B) unity of command
C) chain of command
D) decentralization principle
E) leadership web
a
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Quelle: p.557
70
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The unity-of-command principle states which of the following?
A) Managers should limit their oversight to a maximum of 12 employees.
B) Managers should oversee 1 · 4 employees on average.
C) An individual should be directly responsible to only one supervisor.
D) Managers should provide direction to their employees in a unified fashion.
E) Employees should report directly to two supervisors to maintain task balance.
c
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Quelle: p.556
71
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The xxxxxxxxx principle helps preserve the concept of an unbroken line of authority.
A) span of control
B) chain of command
C) cross-functionality
D) centralization
E) unity-of-command
B) chain of command
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Quelle: p.556
72
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The right inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect orders to be obeyed is termed ....
A) chain of command
B) authority
C) power
D) unity of command
E) leadership
b
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Quelle: p.556
73
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The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom is termed ...
A) chain of command
B) authority
C) span of control.
D) unity of command
E) web of authority
a
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Quelle: p.555
74
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Proctor & Gamble departmentalizes by Tide, Pampers, Charmin, and Pringles. This is an example of departmentalization by ...
A) function
B) process
C) geography
D) product
E) interest
d
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Quelle: p.555
75
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xxxxxxx departmentalization achieves economies of scale by placing people with common skills and orientations into common units.
A) Functional
B) Process
C) Product
D) Geographic
E) Temporal
a
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Quelle: p.555
76
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A plant manager who organizes the plant by separating engineering, accounting, manufacturing, personnel, and purchasing into departments is practicing ... departmentalization.
A) target customer
B) product
C) functional
D) geographic
E) graphic
c
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Quelle: p.555
77
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One of the most popular ways to group activities is by ...
A) product
B) function
C) geography
D) process
E) temporality
b
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Quelle: p.555
78
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Which one of the following is not one of the primary ways to group jobs?
A) skill
B) customer
C) function
D) product
E) process
a
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Quelle: p.555
79
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The basis by which jobs are grouped together is termed ...
A) social clustering
B) bureaucracy
C) specialization
D) centralization
E) departmentalization
e
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Quelle: p.555
80
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For much of the first half of the 20th century, managers viewed work specialization as ...
A) a means to encourage employee satisfaction
B) a frustrating cause of reduced product output
C) an unending source of increased productivity
D) difficult to implement without automation technology
E) an effective solution to over-centralization
c
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Quelle: p.554
81
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In the late 1940s, most manufacturing jobs in industrialized countries were being done with high...
A) departmentalization
B) decentralization
C) work specialization
D) structuralization
E) generalized structure
c
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Quelle: p.554
82
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A task that is subdivided into many separate jobs is considered to have ....
A) a high degree of departmentalization
B) a low degree of decentralization
C) a high degree of work specialization
D) a low degree of structure
E) a high degree of matrix structuring
c
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Quelle: p.553
83
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Work specialization is the same as ...
A) departmentalization
B) division of labor
C) decentralization
D) job grouping
E) chain command
b
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Quelle: p.555
84
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Organizational structure has six key elements. Which of the following is not one of these elements?
A) centralization
B) departmentalization
C) work specialization
D) formalization
E) location of authority
e
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85
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.... defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated.
A) Organizational structure
B) Work specialization
C) Departmentalization
D) Organizational behavior
E) Matrix departmentation
a
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Quelle: p.553
86
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Brenda should advise new employees to do which of the following when dealing with others from different cultures?
A) Remember that individuals are similar in many ways.
B) Avoid interpreting another’s actions until you know the full story.
C) Act decisively and quickly to demonstrate your power.
D) Minimize opportunities for feedback.
E) Do your best to avoid conflict.
b
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Quelle: p.408
87
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Brenda is a new employee orientation trainer for a global corporation with subsidiaries all over the world. She needs toconvey information to new employees that will help them understand the importance of communicating across cultures.
Brenda explains to new employees that cultures, like China and Vietnam, rely heavily
on nonverbal cues.
A) low-content
B) high-content
C) neutral-content
D) low-context
E) high-context
e
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Quelle: p.408
88
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Which element does not have to be present in order for a rumor to emerge?

A) anxiety
B) importance
C) confidence
D) ambiguity
E) solid deadlines for decisions
C) confidence
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Quelle: p. 394
89
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With regard to the grapevine, a manager should try to xxxxxxx.

A) ignore it
B) destroy it
C) limit its range and impact
D) use it to your advantage
E) all of the above
C) limit its range and impact
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Quelle: p. 394
90
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There is a rumor in your organization that layoffs are inevitable. Which of the following is the least likely way to reduce the negative consequences of this rumor?

A) Explain decisions that may appear inconsistent or secretive.
B) Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current decisions and future plans.
C) Discount the rumor.
D) Openly discuss worst case possibilities.
E) Discuss deadlines for decisions.
C) Discount the rumor.
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Quelle: p. 394
91
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Electronic communication includes all of the following except xxxxxxx.

A) text messaging
B) teleconferencing
C) video conferencing
D) e-mail
E) blogs
B) teleconferencing
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Quelle: p. 394
92
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Which of the following is not a benefit of e-mail as a communications tool?

A) E-mail messages can be quickly written, edited, and stored.
B) E-mail messages can be distributed to one person or thousands with a click of a mouse.
C) E-mail messages have less emotional content.
D) E-mail messages can be read at the recipient’s convenience.
E) none of the above
C) E-mail messages have less emotional content.
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Quelle: p. 394
93
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What form of electronic communications is in “real” time?

A) blogs
B) networking software
C) e-mail
D) text messaging
E) instant messaging
E) instant messaging
Tags:
Quelle: p. 396
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What form of electronic communications uses a portable communication device?

A) blogs
B) networking software
C) e-mail
D) text messaging
E) instant messaging
D) text messaging
Tags:
Quelle: p. 396
95
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Facebook and MySpace are examples of what?

A) blogs
B) networking software
C) e-mail
D) text messaging
E) instant messaging
B) networking software
Tags:
Quelle: p. 396
96
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Which electronic communications tool is updated daily?

A) blogs
B) networking software
C) e-mail
D) text messaging
E) instant messaging
A) blogs
Tags:
Quelle: p. 397
97
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Because cameras and microphones are being attached to individual computers, people are able to xxxxxxx without leaving their desks.

A) use network software
B) e-mail
C) text message
D) video conference
E) instant message
D) video conference
Tags:
Quelle: p. 398
98
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What can provide an organization with both a competitive edge and improved organizational performance because it makes its employees smarter?

A) selective perception
B) channel richness
C) networking software
D) web logs
E) knowledge management
E) knowledge management
Tags:
Quelle: p. 398
99
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When Neal Patterson, CEO of Lerner Corporation, sent his seething e-mail to 400 managers, he erred by selecting the wrong xxxxxxx.

A) channel for his message
B) message
C) distribution
D) emotional charge
E) none of the above
A) channel for his message
Tags:
Quelle: p. 401
100
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Which of the following statements is not true regarding face-to-face communication?

A) It has high channel richness.
B) It provides for a maximum amount of information to be transmitted.
C) It usually results in delayed feedback.
D) It offers multiple information cues.
E) It is highly personal.
C) It usually results in delayed feedback.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 401
101
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Which of the following is not a barrier to effective communication?

A) filtering
B) silence
C) selective perception
D) language
E) All of the above are barriers.
B) silence
Tags:
Quelle: p. 402
102
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When a person manipulates information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver, he is xxxxx.

A) using selective perception
B) filtering information
C) using politically correct communication
D) suffering from communication apprehension
E) using ineffective communication means
B) filtering information
Tags:
Quelle: p. 402
103
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Jake tells his boss only what he believes the boss wants to hear. Jake is engaging in xxxxxx.

A) filtering
B) selective perception
C) communication apprehension
D) emotional block
E) selective selection
A) filtering
Tags:
Quelle: p. 402
104
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Receivers in communication see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. This is called xxxxxxx.

A) communication apprehension
B) filtering
C) selective perception
D) emotional block
E) projection
C) selective perception
Tags:
Quelle: p. 402
105
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An interviewer who believes female applicants will put family ahead of career is using xxxxxxx.

A) prejudice
B) selective perception
C) values judgment
D) filtering
E) projection
B) selective perception
Tags:
Quelle: p. 402
106
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During the communication process, which of the following is most likely to result in lost information?

A) information processing
B) information overload
C) information filtering
D) effective communication
E) the maximal effort effect
B) information overload
Tags:
Quelle: p. 402
107
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Variables that influence the language a person uses include all of the following except xxxxxx.

A) age
B) incentives
C) education
D) cultural background
E) nationality
B) incentives
Tags:
Quelle: p. 403
108
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Communication xxxxx is the tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.

A) obstruction
B) apprehension
C) breakdown
D) block
E) frustration
B) apprehension
Tags:
Quelle: p. 404
109
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If Albert is apprehensive regarding oral communication, which of the following behaviors is he least likely to display?

A) He prefers to talk on the phone.
B) He distorts the communication demands of his job.
C) He limits his oral communication and then tends to rationalize his behavior.
D) He relies on memos or letters.
E) He avoids face-to-face communication.
A) He prefers to talk on the phone.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 404
110
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Tannen’s research indicates that men use talk to xxxxxx, while women use it to xxxxxx.

A) emphasize status; create connections
B) get promotions; problem-solve
C) establish blame; gossip
D) create networks; emphasize individualism
E) establish interdependence; create relationships
A) emphasize status; create connections
Tags:
Quelle: p. 404
111
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Which of the following would be least likely to pose a barrier to cross-cultural communications?

A) tone differences
B) word connotations
C) semantics
D) political correctness
E) differences among perceptions
D) political correctness
Tags:
Quelle: p. 407
112
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xxxxxxx cultures rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with others.

A) High-context
B) Low-context
C) Neutral context
D) High-content
E) Low-content
A) High-context
Tags:
Quelle: p. 408
113
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Individuals from which of the following countries would be most likely to rely essentially on words to convey meaning?

A) China
B) Saudi Arabia
C) Vietnam
D) Germany
E) Greece
D) Germany
Tags: Exhibit 11-9
Quelle: p. 408
114
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Oral agreements imply strong commitments in xxxxxx cultures.

A) low-content
B) high-content
C) low-context
D) high-context
E) neutral-context
D) high-context
Tags:
Quelle: p. 408
115
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Which of the following values is most important to low-context cultures?

A) status
B) directness
C) titles
D) trust
E) space
B) directness
Tags:
Quelle: p. 408
116
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In dealing with cross-cultural communication, a manager might practice putting herself in the place of the employee, a method termed xxxxxxx.

A) evaluation
B) empathy
C) complicity
D) commiseration
E) apathy
B) empathy
Tags:
Quelle: p. 408
117
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Which of the following is most likely to help reduce misperceptions when communicating with people from a different culture?

A) Assume similarity until differences are proven.
B) Emphasize interpretation rather than evaluation and descriptions.
C) See the other’s point of view.
D) Treat your interpretations as a confirmed hypothesis.
E) Make judgments quickly and decisively
C) See the other’s point of view.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 408
118
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Mary telephones her employee, Joe, to let him know that today’s meeting has been moved to one o’clock.

In the communication process, Mary is xxxxxxx.

A) the sender
B) the receiver
C) the message
D) the channel
E) the encoder
A) the sender
Tags: Exhibit 11-1
Quelle: p. 387
119
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Which type of decision-making group is most committed to the group solution?

A) interacting
B) brainstorming
C) nominal
D) electronic
E) social
A) interacting
Tags: Exhibit
Quelle: p. 342
120
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Which of the following is not considered an advantage of electronic meetings?

A) Members can be honest.
B) It is speedy.
C) Individuals receive credit for their ideas.
D) It is anonymous.
E) Chitchat is eliminated.
C) Individuals receive credit for their ideas.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 342
121
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Astro Inc. is reorganizing and your new work group begins working together on Monday morning. Your college course in
organizational behavior contained information about the stages of group development and your supervisor has asked
your advice about the predictable stages of group development.

You should tell your supervisor that in the first stage of group development, the team members
will probably be xxxxxxx.

A) uncertain
B) excited
C) in conflict
D) focused on the task at hand
E) confident
A) uncertain
Tags: Forming
Quelle: p. 320
122
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Astro Inc. is reorganizing and your new work group begins working together on Monday morning. Your college course in
organizational behavior contained information about the stages of group development and your supervisor has asked
your advice about the predictable stages of group development.

You should predict that the most productive stage will be xxxxxxx.

A) producing
B) increasing
C) maturity
D) performing
E) omitting
D) performing
Tags:
Quelle: p. 320
123
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Astro Inc. is reorganizing and your new work group begins working together on Monday morning. Your college course in
organizational behavior contained information about the stages of group development and your supervisor has asked
your advice about the predictable stages of group development.

The final stage for this permanent work group should be xxxxxx.

A) termination
B) maturity
C) performing
D) adjourning
E) the omega stage
D) adjourning
Tags:
Quelle: p. 320
124
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Several years ago you began a small retail store to sell computer parts. The store grew and the business expanded to offer computer repair and custom programming. You have noticed that people have definite expectations about what their appropriate roles within the expanding company should be.

You can help the people in the company understand their roles and the roles of other people by explaining some common facts about roles. Which of the following is not true?

A) Each person will be expected to play a number of diverse roles.
B) Most people have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demands require major changes.
C) Role perception is how people believe others are expected to act in their given roles.
D) It may be helpful for them to view role expectations through the perspective of a
psychological contract.
E) People can be flexible in the roles that they play.
E) People can be flexible in the roles that they play.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 324
125
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Several years ago you began a small retail store to sell computer parts. The store grew and the business expanded to offer computer repair and custom programming. You have noticed that people have definite expectations about what their
appropriate roles within the expanding company should be.

To clear up role confusion, you have decided that you must come to an unwritten agreement with each employee about your mutual expectations. You are developing a(n) xxxxxx.

A) role playing document
B) role expectation contract
C) psychological contract
D) employment contract
E) implicit role adherence schedule
C) psychological contract
Tags: Role expectations
Quelle: p. 324
126
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Several years ago you began a small retail store to sell computer parts. The store grew and the business expanded to offer computer repair and custom programming. You have noticed that people have definite expectations about what their
appropriate roles within the expanding company should be.

John is expected to help customers in the retail store as well as perform computer repair work. He feels that every time he gets started on a repair, he is interrupted and doesn’t know whether to finish his repair or wait on the customer. John suffers from role xxxxxx.

A) conflict
B) expectations
C) perception
D) identity
E) duality
A) conflict
Tags:
Quelle: p. 324
127
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Joe is restructuring departments and is creating teams to increase the effectiveness of his departments. He recognizes that the size of groups impacts their overall behavior.

Given what Joe knows about groups, what is a good size for a group that must take action?

A) 4
B) 7
C) 9
D) 12
E) over 12
B) 7
Tags: Size
Quelle: p. 333
128
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Joe is restructuring departments and is creating teams to increase the effectiveness of his departments. He recognizes that the size of groups impacts their overall behavior.

Joe is forming a fact-finding group. What would be the better group size to gain diverse input?

A) 3
B) 7
C) 9
D) 10
E) over 12
E) over 12
Tags:
Quelle: p. 333
129
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Joe is restructuring departments and is creating teams to increase the effectiveness of his departments. He recognizes that the size of groups impacts their overall behavior.

Joe has learned in an OB course that xxxxxx.

A) small groups are good for developing ideas
B) large groups are better at taking action
C) social loafing is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively
D) team spirit always spurs individual effort and enhances the group’s overall productivity
E) groups composed of all men or all women are the most effective groups, in general
C) social loafing is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively
Tags:
Quelle: p. 333
130
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Your organization is considering the use of team decision making. You have read the literature on decision making and
are trying to inform your manager about the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.

You should expect to find that xxxxxx.

A) group decision making will be faster
B) group discussions will be shared equally
C) there will be increased acceptance of the decision
D) group decision making will be very costly
E) groups will find reaching a decision to be less effortful than individuals
C) there will be increased acceptance of the decision




Page 336 (Chapter 9)

Strengths of Group Decision Making:
- groups lead to increased acceptance of a solution
Tags:
Quelle: p. 336
131
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Your organization is considering the use of team decision making. You have read the literature on decision making and
are trying to inform your manager about the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.

You should expect a weakness of group decision making to be xxxxxxx.

A) less complete knowledge
B) more time will be used to make the decision
C) employees will be less accepting of the group decision
D) the decision will probably be a lower quality decision
E) decreased risky shift
B) more time will be used to make decision
Tags:
Quelle: p. 337
132
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Your organization is considering the use of team decision making. You have read the literature on decision making and
are trying to inform your manager about the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.

You have observed that the group tends to come to consensus very quickly and there appears to be an illusion of unanimity. You conclude that they may be suffering from xxxxxxx.

A) inefficiency syndrome
B) groupshift
C) disintegrating norms
D) groupthink
E) risky shift
D) groupthink
Tags:
Quelle: p. 338
133
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You decide that your company’s choice of which new product to manufacture needs to have widespread acceptance and
that this decision needs to be of the highest quality possible. Having read the literature on decision making, you believe
that this choice needs to be made by a group of your best managers.

You have decided to use the nominal group technique. Which is true about this method?

A) This method is good for building group cohesiveness.
B) This method is good for processing ideas rapidly.
C) This method is good for encouraging independent thinking.
D) This method is an inexpensive means for generating a large number of ideas.
E) This method requires a great deal of face-to-face interaction.
c)

"the chief advantage of the nominal group techniques is that it permits a group to meet formall but does not restrict independant thinking"
Tags: Exhibit
Quelle: p. 342
134
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You decide that your company’s choice of which new product to manufacture needs to have widespread acceptance and
that this decision needs to be of the highest quality possible. Having read the literature on decision making, you believe
that this choice needs to be made by a group of your best managers.

You have decided to use the electronic meeting technique. Which of the following is not true about this type of meeting?

A) Participants type their responses onto a computer screen.
B) You can expect participants to be honest.
C) Participants will be anonymous.
D) Group cohesiveness will be high.
E) It can be highly effective under certain conditions.
D) Group cohesiveness will be high.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 342
135
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Research indicates that poor xxxxxx is probably the most frequently cited source of interpersonal conflict.

A) motivation
B) leadership
C) training
D) communication
E) hygiene
D) communication
Tags:
Quelle: p. 385
136
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When can lateral communications create dysfunctional conflict?

A) when the formal vertical channels are breached
B) when members go above or around their superiors to get things done
C) when bosses find out that actions have been taken without their knowledge
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
A) when the formal vertical channels are breached
Tags:
Quelle: p. 389
137
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Communication messages that are passed through a great many people will most likely suffer from which of the following?

A) disruption
B) distortion
C) lack of non-verbal cues
D) decoding
E) formal communication decay
B) distortion
Tags:
Quelle: p. 390
138
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Memos, letters, e-mail, fax transmissions, and organizational periodicals represent examples of xxxxxxx.

A) informal communication channels
B) formal communication channels
C) written communication
D) technological communication
E) none of the above
C) written communication
Tags:
Quelle: p. 390
139
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A sender may most likely choose to use written communication because xxxxxxx.

A) written communications are tangible and verifiable
B) written messages can be retracted easily
C) the messages can only be stored for short periods of time
D) written messages usually take minimal time to prepare
E) written messages often require additional feedback
A) written communications are tangible and verifiable
Tags:
Quelle: p. 390
140
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Which of the following is not a drawback of written messages?

A) They’re time consuming.
B) They are unlikely to be well thought-out.
C) They lack built-in feedback mechanisms.
D) It is difficult for senders to confirm whether they have been received.
E) They may be misinterpreted by their receivers.
B) They are unlikely to be well thought-out.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 390
141
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Messages conveyed through body movements and facial expressions are xxxxxxx.

A) body language
B) kinesics
C) physical characteristics
D) connotations
E) semantics
A) body language
Tags:
Quelle: p. 390
142
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Facial expressions, physical distance, and looking at your watch are all examples of xxxxxxx.

A) kinesics
B) nonverbal communication
C) informal networks
D) verbal communication
E) adaptors
B) nonverbal communication
Tags:
Quelle: p. 391
143
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All of the following are examples of nonverbal communication except xxxxxxx.

A) intonations or emphasis
B) instant messaging
C) physical distance
D) facial expressions
E) hand gestures
B) instant messaging
Tags:
Quelle: p. 391
144
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Which of the following statements is not a characteristic of nonverbal communication?

A) It includes intonation.
B) Its significance is unproven in explaining and predicting behavior.
C) It can be argued that every body movement has meaning.
D) We rarely send these types of messages consciously.
E) It can convey meaningful information.
B) Its significance is unproven in explaining and predicting behavior.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 391
145
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Which of the following types of networks is most likely to promote accuracy?

A) chain
B) direct
C) wheel
D) all-channel
E) circle
A) chain
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
146
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What small-group network is most effective for facilitating the emergence of a leader?

A) chain
B) all-channel
C) wheel
D) direct
E) box
C) wheel
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
147
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What small-group network best serves to promote high member satisfaction?

A) direct
B) circle
C) wheel
D) all-channel
E) box
D) all-channel
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
148
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A(n) xxxxxx network of communication would most likely be found in a rigid three-level organization.

A) vertical
B) direct
C) chain
D) all-channel
E) box
C) chain
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
149
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A(n) xxxxxx communication network occurs when a checkout clerk reports to a department manager, who in turn reports to a store manager, who reports to a regional manager.

A) direct
B) all-channel
C) vertical
D) chain
E) horizontal
D) chain
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
150
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When all communication is channeled through one central figure, a xxxxxx communication network exists.

A) direct
B) chain
C) lateral
D) wheel
E) box
D) wheel
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
151
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In a(n) xxxxxx communication network, any group member can actively communicate with any other member.

A) wheel
B) all-channel
C) interpersonal
D) circle
E) free
B) all-channel
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
152
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The xxxxxxx communication network is best illustrated by self-managed teams.

A) wheel
B) all-channel
C) interpersonal
D) circle
E) box
B) all-channel
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
153
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An informal communication network is typically called a xxxxxx.

A) gossip monger
B) grapevine
C) chain
D) contextual system
E) free acting system
B) grapevine
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
154
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Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the grapevine?

A) It is used to serve the self-interests of outsiders.
B) It is perceived as being more reliable than formal communication.
C) It is generally used as an anti-management tool.
D) It is usually inaccurate.
E) It serves as a formal communication channel.
B) It is perceived as being more reliable than formal communication.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
155
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In one study of the grapevine, it was found that only xxxxxxx percent of the executives participated by passing the information on to more than one other person.

A) 10
B) 15
C) 20
D) 25
E) 30
A) 10
Tags:
Quelle: p. 393
156
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Studies have shown that xxxxxx percent of the information transmitted through the grapevine is accurate.

A) 55
B) 65
C) 75
D) 85
E) 100
C) 75
Tags:
Quelle: p. 394
157
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Rumors would most likely flourish in situations where there is xxxxxxx.

A) well-communicated change
B) ambiguity
C) a trivial issue at hand
D) assurance by management
E) a chain communication style
B) ambiguity
Tags:
Quelle: p. 394
158
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Individuals spend nearly xxxxxxx percent of their waking hours communicating.

A) 60
B) 70
C) 80
D) 90
E) 100
B) 70
Tags:
Quelle: p. 385
159
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Communication must include both the xxxxxx and the understanding of meaning.

A) transportation
B) interpretation
C) triaging
D) transference
E) intention
D) transference
Tags:
Quelle: p. 385
160
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Communication serves all of the following functions within a group or organization except xxxxxx.

A) motivation
B) planning
C) emotional expression
D) control
E) conveying information
B) planning
Tags:
Quelle: p. 385
161
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Formal guidelines and authority hierarchies are examples of which function of communication?

A) control
B) agreement
C) organization
D) information
E) all of the above
A) control
Tags:
Quelle: p. 385
162
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When employees are required to follow their job description or to comply with company policies, communication is performing a(n) xxxxxx function.

A) control
B) motivation
C) emotional expression
D) information
E) feedback
A) control
Tags:
Quelle: p. 385
163
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Which of the following is the most important function of communication in organizations?

A) motivation
B) control
C) information
D) none of the above
E) All of these factors are important.
E) All of these factors are important.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 386
164
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Clarification to employees about how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance, are examples of which function of communication?

A) information
B) control
C) motivation
D) emotional expression
E) none of the above
C) motivation
Tags:
Quelle: p. 386
165
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Which function of communication transmits the data necessary for decision-making?

A) emotional expression
B) information
C) control
D) motivation
E) all of the above
B) information
Tags:
Quelle: p. 386
166
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The means by which a communication is passed is called xxxxxx.

A) a medium
B) a conduit
C) a conductor
D) a transmission
E) Surberism
A) a medium
Tags:
Quelle: p. 386
167
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The medium through which communication travels is called a xxxxxxx.

A) transmission
B) message
C) media
D) channel
E) vessel
D) channel
Tags:
Quelle: p. 386
168
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In the communication process, which of the following steps occurs first?

A) transmitting
B) decoding
C) encoding
D) understanding
E) analysis
C) encoding
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
169
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During communication, the xxxxxxx initiates a message by encoding a thought.

A) receiver
B) channel
C) sender
D) speaker
E) leader
C) sender
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
170
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The product of a sender’s encoding is the xxxxxxx.

A) channel
B) message
C) transmission
D) medium
E) all of the above
B) message
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
171
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John writes a memo to his employees. Putting his thoughts onto paper is an example of xxxxxxx.

A) encoding
B) communicating
C) messaging
D) channeling
E) cryptography
C) encoding –> translating thought to message
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
172
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The receiver of a communication is most likely to xxxxxxx a message.

A) explain
B) reproduce
C) reflect
D) translate
E) discard
D) translate
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
173
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Formal channels traditionally follow the xxxxxxx within an organization.

A) communication chain
B) authority chain
C) influence chain
D) transmission chain
E) social chain
B) authority chain
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
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A receiver who translates a sender’s message is engaging in the process of xxxxxx.

A) encoding
B) decoding
C) transmission
D) feedback
E) recoding
B) decoding
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
175
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What step determines whether understanding has been achieved during the communication process?

A) decoding
B) feedback
C) channel
D) encoding
E) transmission
B) feedback
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
176
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The communication used by managers to provide job instructions is xxxxxx communication.

A) downward
B) lateral
C) formal
D) directional
E) diagonal
A) downward
Tags:
Quelle: p. 387
177
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Which of the following is an example of downward communication flow?

A) suggestion boxes
B) envelope attitude surveys
C) feedback on job performance
D) identifying with and discussing problems with the boss
E) letters to your senator
C) feedback on job performance
Tags:
Quelle: p. 388
178
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All of the following are examples of downward communication flows except xxxxx.

A) managers assigning goals
B) managers informing employees of procedures
C) managers pointing out problems that need attention
D) employees completing attitude surveys
E) managers telling employees to work more quickly
D) employees completing attitude surveys
Tags:
Quelle: p. 388
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0
Communication that takes place among members of work groups at the same level is known as xxxxxx communication.

A) tangential
B) cross-functional
C) job
D) lateral
E) downward
D) lateral
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Joe misses the one o’clock meeting because he misunderstood which meeting Mary was
referring to. Joe forgot to ask Mary to clarify which meeting she meant. Joe’s misunderstanding
therefore occurred due to a lack of .
A) encoding
B) decoding
C) noise
D) feedback
E) channel
494)
d)
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181
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The telephone is the .
A) sender B) receiver C) medium D) message E) decoder
c)
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182
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Mary telephones her employee, Joe, to let him know that today’s meeting has been moved to one o’clock.
492) In the communication process, Mary is .
A) the sender
B) the receiver
C) the message
D) the channel
E) the encoder
a)
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Quelle: p.386
183
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Brenda is a new employee orientation trainer for a global corporation with subsidiaries all over the world. She needs to convey information to new employees that will help them understand the importance of communicating across cultures.
Brenda explains to new employees that cultures, like China and Vietnam, rely heavily
on nonverbal cues.
A) low-content
B) high-content
C) neutral-content
D) low-context
E) high-context
e)
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Quelle: p.408
184
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You sit in on a meeting between two of your managers. The following conversation occurs:
Mary: “I have been thinking all day about which one of the employees should be promoted
to manager. Ralph, I’d like to get your opinion about the three possible candidates.”
Ralph: “Hire Jackson.”
Mary: “Well . . . I’d really like to discuss this so that we can both be comfortable with the decision.”
Ralph: “You asked for my opinion. I said that we should hire Jackson. We really need to get
a move on this, Mary. Can’t you just make a decision?”
Mary: “I’m sorrymaybe we can talk later.”
Ralph: “You’re sorry? Are you having trouble handling the pressure?”
500) What of the following best reflects Mary’s motives in this conversation?
A) Mary is attempting to stall the hiring decision.
B) Mary wishes to make a connection with Ralph before making her decision.
C) Mary is using the dialogue to solicit grapevine information.
D) Mary is attempting to avoid hiring Jackson.
E) Mary is being assertive.
500)
b)
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Quelle: p.402-405
185
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Zeus Industries sells satellite television systems. In the past, the company has been highly successful, and the senior
management has created special perks and lavish offices for themselves. Other employees do not have access to these perks, and their facilities are non-descript.
Recently, the company invested heavily in one of the many new technologies available. Employees tell senior
management that this investment was the right choice, but sales keep decreasing. Some sales employees have also given incorrect information to suppliers, even though the company has held numerous intensive training sessions to keep sales personnel apprised of changes in the industry. The company has also received low customer service ratings from recent consumer surveys. These surveys indicate that customers are frustrated with the specialized technical knowledge necessary to operate their satellite systems
.

The mistakes committed by the sales staff suggest that sales personnel are probably
experiencing which of the following as a result of their intensive training?
A) filtering
B) lack of feedback
C) information overload
D) defensiveness
E) selective perception
c
Tags:
Quelle: p.402
186
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Zeus Industries sells satellite television systems. In the past, the company has been highly successful, and the senior
management has created special perks and lavish offices for themselves. Other employees do not have access to these
perks, and their facilities are non-descript.
Recently, the company invested heavily in one of the many new technologies available. Employees tell senior
management that this investment was the right choice, but sales keep decreasing. Some sales employees have also given
incorrect information to suppliers, even though the company has held numerous intensive training sessions to keep sales
personnel apprised of changes in the industry. The company has also received low customer service ratings from recent
consumer surveys. These surveys indicate that customers are frustrated with the specialized technical knowledge
necessary to operate their satellite systems.
498) Which of the following best characterizes the communication problem occurring between
employees and senior management?
A) filtering
B) sabotage
C) communication apprehension
D) overload
E) selective perception
a)
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Quelle: p.402
187
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Harriet has been assigned the task of setting up work teams for a complex software development project. Each team has
different work requirements. Harriet must choose the best structure for each team, based on its specific requirements.
After establishing Team D in a wheel network structure, Harriet receives negative feedback from
members of the team. Many team members express frustration about working in the group, and
most dislike the interpersonal style of the team leader. Which of the following strategies would
most likely help to improve the team members’ morale?
A) Leaving the team as a wheel network and encouraging team members to share the
leadership responsibility.
B) Restructuring the group as a chain network and replacing the leader with another group
member.
C) Leaving the team leader in place and restructuring the group as a chain network.
D) Transferring the team leader to another group and restructuring the group as an
all-channel network.
E) Leaving the team as a wheel network and replacing the team leader with another group
member.

d)
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Quelle: p. 393
188
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Harriet has been assigned the task of setting up work teams for a complex software development project. Each team has
different work requirements. Harriet must choose the best structure for each team, based on its specific requirements.

Harriet has been charged with the task of evaluating two employees for possible promotions.
She is interested in learning which employee has the most effective leadership skills. One of the
employees is assigned to Team B, and the other is assigned to Team C. Which network structure
should Harriet choose for these teams if she wishes to place the two employees in clear
leadership positions on the teams?
A) wheel
B) chain
C) concentric
D) all-channel
E) diverse
496)
a
Tags:
Quelle: p.393
189
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Harriet has been assigned the task of setting up work teams for a complex software development project. Each team has
different work requirements. Harriet must choose the best structure for each team, based on its specific requirements.
495) Team A must operate very quickly to meet stringent deadlines. The quality of the final project
depends highly on Team A’s output, so Team A must also work very accurately. Which of the
following network structures should Harriet choose for this team?
A) chain
B) wheel
C) grapevine
D) informal
E) all-channel
b
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Quelle: p.393
190
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Joe misses the one o’clock meeting because he misunderstood which meeting Mary was
referring to. Joe forgot to ask Mary to clarify which meeting she meant. Joe’s misunderstanding
therefore occurred due to a lack of .
A) encoding
B) decoding
C) noise
D) feedback
E) channel
d)
Tags:
Quelle: p.387
191
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Mary telephones her employee, Joe, to let him know that today’s meeting has been moved to one o’clock.
The telephone is the .
A) sender B) receiver C) medium D) message E) decoder
c)
Tags:
Quelle: p.386
192
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What is the major failure of reinforcement theory in explaining changes in behavior?
A) It cannot adequately describe the original behavior.
B) It originated in the studies of the responses of animals.
C) Most behavior is in fact environmentally caused.
D) It ignores the effect of rewards and punishments upon behavior.
E) It does not recognize the effect of feelings, attitudes, and other cognitive variables.
e)
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Quelle: p.225
193
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Which theory is, strictly speaking, not a theory of motivation since it does not concern itself with
what initiates behavior?
A) equity theory
B) expectancy theory
C) ERG theory
D) reinforcement theory
E) Theory X and Theory Y
299)
d)
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Quelle: p.225
194
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How do proponents of reinforcement theory view behavior?
A) as the result of a cognitive process
B) as environmentally caused
C) as a reflection of the inner state of the individual
D) as a function of one’s power need
E) as a product of heredity
298)
b)
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Quelle: p.225
195
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According to Bandura, what is the most important source of increasing self-efficacy?
A) arousal
B) verbal modeling
C) verbal persuasion
D) enactive mastery
E) focused training
297)
d)
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Quelle: p.223
196
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What is the term used for an individual’s personal evaluation of their ability to perform?
A) expectancy
B) autonomy
C) self-efficacy
D) task identity
E) auto-discrimination
296)
c)
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Quelle: p.222
197
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Some MBO programs fail to live up to expectations. Which of the following is not a common
reason that MBO programs fail?
A) They allow lower-unit managers to participate in setting their own goals.
B) There are cultural incompatibilities.
C) There are unrealistic expectations regarding results.
D) There is a lack of commitment by top management.
E) There is an unwillingness or inability by management to reward goal accomplishment.
295)
a)
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Quelle: p.222
198
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Which of the following is an example of an MBO objective?
A) Decrease payroll costs by 6%.
B) Modernize outdated equipment.
C) Train employees to use new invoicing software.
D) Improve customer service.
E) Increase employee satisfaction.
d)
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Quelle: p.222
199
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Which of the following is not an ingredient common to all MBO programs?
A) an explicit time period
B) participative decision making
C) consistent monetary rewards
D) performance feedback
E) a known timeline
293)
c)
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Quelle: p.222
200
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What does MBO provide for the individual employee?
A) specific personal performance objectives
B) precise job descriptions
C) explicit task objectives.
D) clear direction and purpose
E) higher salaries
292)
a)
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Quelle: p.222
201
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Who sets MBO objectives?
A) the boss
B) the boss and immediate subordinates
C) they are set jointly by superior and subordinate
D) the employees performing the task in question
E) each working division in cooperation with management
291)
c) oder e) ???
Tags:
Quelle: p.221
202
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Management by Objectives (MBO) emphasizes translating overall organizational objectives into
.
A) capital gains
B) specific objectives for organizational units and individual members
C) operational units
D) terms that the individual worker can understand and accept
E) personal gain
290)
b)
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Quelle: p.221
203
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What sort of goals does Management by Objectives (MBO) emphasize?
A) tangible, verifiable, and measurable
B) achievable, controllable, and profitable
C) inspirational, teachable, and creative
D) challenging, emotional, and constructive
E) hierarchical, attainable, and effective
289)
a)
Tags:
Quelle: p.221
204
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What is generally considered to be the single best thing that managers can do to improve
performance?
A) allocate tasks depending on personality
B) restrict the use of punishment as a means of motivating workers
C) give abundant opportunities for employee growth
D) set specific, challenging goals
E) concentrate on intrinsic rewards rather than extrinsic rewards
288)
d)
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Quelle: p.220
205
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Deborah works for a U.S. based firm with extensive business interests in Latin America.
Deborah has successfully used goal-setting theory in her efforts to motivate her US employees.
When she tries to use it on her Chilean employees, she has much poorer results. Why is this
probably so?
A) Language difference makes it very difficult to translate the necessary concepts into
Spanish.
B) Chilean employees tend to have higher scores on power distance and uncertainty
avoidance.
C) Chilean employees tend to score high on measures of the need for achievement.
D) The goals the workers in Chile must reach are substantially simpler than those her U.S.
employees must reach.
E) She publicly announced the goals she wanted her Chilean workers to reach.
287)
b)
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Quelle: p.220
206
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Which of the following is not an important issue relating to goal-setting theory?
A) goal difficulty
B) goal specificity
C) equity among co-workers
D) feedback
E) defining the goal
286)
c)
Tags:
Quelle: p.219-220
207
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According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, highest performance is reached when goals
are set to which level?
A) impossible but inspirational
B) difficult but attainable
C) slightly beyond a person’s actual potential
D) only marginally challenging
E) easily attained
285)
b)
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Quelle: p.219
208
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Who proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation?
A) Abraham Maslow
B) Jake Herzberg
C) Stephen McClelland
D) Edwin Locke
E) Douglas Surber
284)
d)
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Quelle: p.219
209
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Cognitive evaluation theory suggests that which of the following would not serve to increase an
employee’s motivation?
A) base pay on performance
B) praise good performance
C) make the work interesting
D) support employee development
E) make pay not contingent on performance
a)
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Quelle: p.216
210
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The issue of whether or not intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are independent is considered in
which theory?
A) expectancy
B) reinforcement
C) equity
D) cognitive evaluation
E) two-factor
282)
d)
Tags:
Quelle: p.216
211
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Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer all of the following except .
A) job situations with personal responsibility
B) a high degree of risk
C) overcoming obstacles
D) feedback
E) personal empowerment
b)
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Quelle: p.215
212
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You are supervising a team leader in charge of training employees to use a new phone system.
According to McClelland, which of the following courses of action will best ensure this
employee stays motivated in his task?
A) Trust him to do the job independently, and do not give feedback until the project is
completed.
B) Trust him to do the job independently, and do not give any feedback unless it is asked for.
C) Trust him to do the job independently, but do not fail to provide plenty of feedback.
D) Closely supervise him, and provide moderate amounts of feedback.
E) Closely supervise him, and provide a great deal of feedback.
280)
b)
Tags:
Quelle: p.215
213
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A manager wishes to motivate a sales employee who is a high achiever. According to
McClelland, which of the following sales territories should be assigned to such a salesperson?
A) one where he is loosely controlled and he is certain to meet his sales targets
B) one where he is closely controlled and there is a moderate chance he will exceed his sales
targets
C) one where he is loosely controlled and there is a moderate chance he will exceed his sales
targets
D) one where he is closely controlled and there is a small chance he will greatly exceed his
sales targets
E) one where he is loosely controlled and there is a small chance he will greatly exceed his
sales targets
279)
c)
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Quelle: p.215
214
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An individual who joins the armed services out of a desire to be involved in an enterprise that
requires a high degree of cooperation for success probably would have high .
A) nAch B) nAff C) nPow D) nEst E) nLov
a)
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Quelle: p.215
215
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How does McClelland define the need for affiliation?
A) drive to excel, to strive to succeed.
B) need to make others behave in a novel way
C) desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
D) same as Maslow’s social need
E) all of the above
2
c)
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Quelle: p.214
216
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According to McClelland, what is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not
have behaved otherwise?
A) the need for power
B) the need for achievement
C) the need for affiliation
D) the need for control
E) the need for social validation
276)
a)
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Quelle: p.214
217
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According to McClelland, individuals who have a desire to excel and to succeed are high in
.
A) nPow B) nAch C) nMot D) nAff E) nSync
b)
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Quelle: p.214
218
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Jasmine is trying to gain control of her department. Although she will be greatly compensated if she achieves this aim and will gain control over many subordinates, the main reason she is pursuing this position is that she thinks she can do the job better than her predecessors and wants people to know that this is so. What need would McClelland say primarily drives Jasmine in this case?

A) the need for control
B) the need for achievement
C) the need for attainment
D) the need for influence
E) the need for power
b) the need for achievement
Tags:
Quelle: p.214
219
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McClelland’s theory of needs concentrates on which three needs?
A) achievement, realization, and acceptance
B) achievement, power, and affiliation
C) power, acceptance, and confirmation
D) affiliation, control, and realization
E) control, status, and relationships
b ) achievement, power, and affiliation
Tags:
Quelle: p.214
220
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Which of the following is a not a criticism of the two-factor theory?

A) No overall measure of satisfaction is utilized.
B) The research methodology does not examine productivity.
C) The theory is inconsistent with previous research.
D) The system used by raters is too rigid and not open to interpretation.
E) He assumed a strong relationship between satisfaction and productivity.
c) oder e)???

e definitiv  denke ich. über c steht nichts im Text, eher aber das Gegenteil, nämlich das diese Theory auf dei vorhergehenden aufbaut
Tags:
Quelle: p.213-214
221
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What continuum in the two-factor theory is made up of the hygiene factors?
A) no dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction
B) no dissatisfaction to satisfaction
C) satisfaction to no satisfaction
D) satisfaction to dissatisfaction
E) dissatisfaction to exit behavior
a)
Tags:
Quelle: p.213
222
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Which of the following would be considered a motivator in the two-factor theory?

A) salary
B) supervision
C) working conditions
D) bonuses
E) responsibility
e)
Tags:
Quelle: p.212
223
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Gerry has a job which pays an excellent salary. She has a good relationship with her peers and her supervisors. She also likes the fact that the company policy fits well with what she personally believes, and that she has received considerable recognition for her achievements at the company. Which of these factors is most likely responsible for the fact that Gerry loves her job?

A) high compensation
B) good nature of peer relationships
C) good nature of supervisor relationships
D) good fit between personal beliefs and company policy
E) recognition for her achievements
e)
Tags:
Quelle: p.212
224
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Which of the following is not true about the two-factor theory?

A) Working conditions are characterized as hygiene factors.
B) Intrinsic factors are motivators.
C) A job becomes satisfying when the dissatisfying characteristics are removed.
D) Responsibility is a satisfier.
E) Hygiene factors are demotivators.
c)
Tags:
Quelle: p.212-214
225
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Two-factor theory suggests that dissatisfaction is caused by extrinsic factors. Which of the following is an example of such a factor?

A) advancement
B) working conditions
C) achievement
D) recognition
E) nature of the work itself
b) working conditions
Tags:
Quelle: p.212
226
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Who proposed a two-factor theory?
A) Maslow
B) McClelland
C) Surber
D) Alderfer
E) Herzberg
e)
Tags:
Quelle: p.212
227
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What other name is the two-factor theory known by?
A) theories X and Y
B) motivator-hygiene theory
C) hierarchy of needs theory
D) satisfaction/dissatisfaction theory
E) minimal justification theory
2
b)
Tags: Two factor theory
Quelle: p.212
228
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Someone subscribing to theory X would agree with which of the following statements?
A) Individuals are dominated by Maslow’s lower level needs.
B) Individuals are dominated by Maslow’s higher level needs.
C) Individuals are not clearly dominated by any particular level of Maslow’s hierarchy of
needs.
D) Individuals are in reality independent of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
E) Individuals are dominated by their needs in a situational context rather than in a strict
hierarchy.
a)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
229
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Two managers are talking about how they get the best out of their employees:
Jo: “I tell my employees that times are tough and there is no way of telling when the guys in head office might try to downsize. Let me tell you, a bit of fear keeps them focused on the task at hand.”
Chris “I tell them that head office is making them more responsible for deciding how to do theirwork. The increased sense of ownership they have makes productivity go way up”
How would these managers be best characterized by Douglas McGregor?
A) Both hold Theory X assumptions.
B) Both hold Theory Y assumptions.
C) Chris holds Theory X assumptions; Jo holds Theory Y assumptions.
D) Jo holds Theory X assumptions; Chris holds Theory Y assumptions.
E) The statements would not indicate that either manager is predisposed to either Theory X
or Theory Y assumptions.
d)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
230
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Which of the following is a behavior that would most likely be exhibited by a Theory X manager?

A) She lets her employees choose their own goals.
B) She trusts her employees to use discretion in most matters.
C) She strictly controls the details of any project she is managing.
D) She delegates authority extensively to junior managers.
E) She honestly informs her employees of the likelihood that they will lose their jobs.
c)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
231
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A Theory Y manager would assume that employees would .
A) dislike work
B) need to be controlled
C) avoid responsibility
D) exercise self direction
E) attempt to avoid work
d)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
232
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How would a Theory X manager view employees?
A) seeking responsibility
B) needing to be coerced to achieve goals
C) viewing work as a normal daily activity
D) exercising self control
E) not motivated by rewards
260)
b)
Tags: Theory X and Y
Quelle: p.211
233
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Which of the following theories was proposed by Douglas McGregor?
A) hierarchy of needs theory
B) Theories X and Y
C) two-factor theory
D) ERG theory
E) expectancy theory
259)
b)
Tags: Theories of X and Y
Quelle: p.211
234
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What is the major problem with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in organizational behavior?
A) It is difficult to apply to the workplace.
B) It is vague as to how a workplace can satisfy higher-order needs.
C) Its terminology tends to alienate those to whom it is applied.
D) It is almost impossible to assess how well an individual has a particular need filled.
E) There is little evidence that needs are structured or operate in the way it describes.
e)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
235
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ERG’s needs include the intrinsic component from Maslow’s esteem category and the
characteristics included under self-actualization.
A) existence
B) relatedness
C) growth
D) physiological
E) psychophysical
c)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
236
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Our intrinsic desire for personal development is included in Alderfer’s needs.
A) existence
B) relatedness
C) subsistence
D) esteem
E) growth
e)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
237
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Desires for associations with those who are significant to us, such as family members,
supervisors, and friends, are examples of Alderfer’s needs.
A) existence
B) relatedness
C) association
D) esteem
E) subsistence
b)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
238
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Hunger, thirst, sex, pay, and physical work environment are examples of which of Alderfer’s
needs?
A) existence
B) safety
C) growth
D) physiological
E) subsistence
a)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
239
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Who developed ERG theory?
A) McClelland
B) Maslow
C) Alderfer
D) Ouchi
E) Dieckmann
c)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
240
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What is the primary organizational factor that satisfies people’s physiological needs?
A) their relationships with co-workers
B) recognition
C) pay
D) admiration
E) their position within the organization
c)

Tags:
Quelle: p.210, 2. Absatz
241
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Which of the following were considered higher-order needs by Maslow?
A) physiological, safety, social
B) safety, social, esteem
C) esteem, self-actualization
D) social, esteem, self-actualization
E) recognition, pay, admiration
d)
Tags:
Quelle: p.211
242
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According to Maslow, when does a need stop motivating?
A) when it is substantially satisfied
B) it never stops motivating
C) when one returns to a lower level need
D) when one chooses to move to a higher level need
E) only when it is completely satisfied
a)
Tags: Hierachy of Needs Th.
Quelle: p.210, 1. Absatz unter 5 levels
243
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In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, what is the term used for the drive to become what one is capable of becoming?
A) perfection
B) self-actualization
C) hypo-glorification
D) self-esteem
E) attainment
b)
Tags: Hierachy o. Needs Th. - 5. Self actualization
Quelle: p.210
244
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Hans derives a great sense of belongingness, acceptance and friendship from his relationships
with his extended family. Which of Maslow’s needs is Hans fulfilling through these
relationships?
A) lower-order
B) self-actualization
C) esteem
D) social
E) physiological
245)
d)

...changed it to d because self-actualization includes growth achieving one's potential and self-fulfilment.
Tags: Hier. o. N. Theory- 3. Social
Quelle: p.210
245
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Danielle wants to become a surgeon, not only because achieving this goal will give her
self-respect and autonomy, but also because she wants a job with high status and recognition
from others. Which of Maslow’s needs is Danielle trying to fill?
A) self-actualization
B) social
C) esteem
D) psychological
E) safety
c)
Tags: Hierachy of Needs Th.
Quelle: p.210,- 4. Esteem
246
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Which level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs deals with satisfying one’s hunger, thirst, and need
for sex?
A) safety
B) physiological
C) social
D) esteem
E) psychological
b)
Tags: Hierachy of Needs Th.
Quelle: p.210
247
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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs arranges those needs in which of the following orders?
A) physiological, esteem, safety, social, and self-actualization
B) physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
C) safety, physiological, esteem, social, and self-actualization
D) physiological, social, safety, esteem, and self-actualization
E) safety, physiological, social, esteem, and self-actualization
242)
b)
Tags: Hierachy of Needs Th.
Quelle: p.210
248
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Maslow’s hierarchy has five levels of needs. Which of the following is not one of those levels?
A) safety needs
B) social needs
C) animal needs
D) self-actualization needs
E) physiological needs
c)
Tags: Hierachy of Needs Theory
Quelle: p.210
249
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What is the most well-known theory of motivation?

A) theories X and Y
B) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
C) two-factor theory
D) motivator-hygiene theory
E) cognitive evaluation theory
b)
Tags: Hierachy of Needs Theory
Quelle: p.210, 1. Absatz
250
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What are the three key elements of motivation?
A) reactance, congruence, and circumstance
B) interest, activity, and reward
C) awareness, effort, and outcome
D) stimulation, progress, and achievement
E) intensity, direction, and persistence
239)
e)
Tags: Defining Motivation
Quelle: p.209, 3. Absatz
251
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Motivation is best defined as a process that .

A) results in a level of effort
B) intensifies an individual’s efforts
C) accounts for an individual’s efforts toward attaining a goal
D) meets an individual’s needs
E) stabilizes over time
238)
c)
Tags: Defining Motivation
Quelle: p.209, 2. Absatz/ Definition on the bottom
252
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Jim is a student who cannot work at writing a paper for more than 30 minutes, yet he can spend many hours writing comments on blogs. What accounts for the change in motivation in this case?
A) his ability
B) the situation
C) his personality
D) the congruence
E) the structure of the task
b)
Tags: 1. Absatz, Defining Motivation
Quelle: p.209
253
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You are the manager of a development group in a large computer software company. You have decided that it is
important for your group to understand the many ways that ethical decisions can be made and you are designing a
training program on the subject of ethics. You want to teach the decision criterion that currently dominates businessdecision-making.

If you wish to emphasize the importance of making decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges, the focus of your teaching will also be on which of the following?

A) utilitarianism
B) justice
C) rights
D) privilege
E) service

c)
Tags: Three ethical Decision criteria
Quelle: p.191, 2. Absatz
254
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You are the manager of a development group in a large computer software company. You have decided that it is
important for your group to understand the many ways that ethical decisions can be made and you are designing a
training program on the subject of ethics. You want to teach the decision criterion that currently dominates business
decision-making.


Which decision criterion will you teach?

A) utilitarian
B) justice
C) rights
D) privilege
E) assertion
a)
Tags: Three etical decision criteria
Quelle: p.191, 5. Absatz
255
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You are part of a group making a decision about whether it is appropriate to discontinue research on a new drug. This
new drug would save lives, but it is uncertain whether you can develop it within a reasonable time frame and at a
reasonable cost. Your firm has already spent a small fortune on this drug. You have gathered so much information in preparation to making the decision that you are unable to sort the good information from the superfluous data. Well after you have started trying to make a decision, new information comes to light that implies that the drug may be able to be synthesized much more cheaply than was previously thought.

The group decides to continue the project so that all the resources already spent on it will not have been wasted. In this case the group has done which of the following?

A) used the availability bias
B) used the anchoring bias
C) made an escalation of commitment
D) satisficed
E) made the ultimate attribution error
c)
Tags: Common Bias and Errors in Decision Making- Escalation of Commitement
Quelle: p.185-186
256
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You are part of a group making a decision about whether it is appropriate to discontinue research on a new drug. This
new drug would save lives, but it is uncertain whether you can develop it within a reasonable time frame and at a
reasonable cost. Your firm has already spent a small fortune on this drug. You have gathered so much information in preparation to making the decision that you are unable to sort the good information from the superfluous data. Well after you have started trying to make a decision, new information comes to light that implies that the drug may be able to be synthesized much more cheaply than was previously thought.


What must you try to avoid when integrating this new information?

A) anchoring bias
B) overconfidence bias
C) confirmation bias
D) availability bias
E) representative bias
c)

confirmation bias= tendancy to seek out information that reaffirms past choices an to discount information that contradicts past judgements
Tags: Common bias and errors n decision making- confirmation bias
Quelle: p.185
257
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You are part of a group making a decision about whether it is appropriate to discontinue research on a new drug. This
new drug would save lives, but it is uncertain whether you can develop it within a reasonable time frame and at a
reasonable cost. Your firm has already spent a small fortune on this drug. You have gathered so much information inpreparation to making the decision that you are unable to sort the good information from the superfluous data. Your experience tells you that this project has merit.

What form of decision making are you using if you decide to continue the project on the basis that the project has merit?
A) compulsive
B) intuitive
C) rational
D) satisficing
E) compelling
b)

intuative decision making= an unconscious process created out of experiance

Your experience tells you that this project has merit
Tags: Decision Making in organizations- Intuition
Quelle: p.183
258
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You have heard that the teacher believes that men perform better in oral presentations than women. What shortcut has the teacher used in this case?

A) the halo effect
B) the contrast effect
C) projection
D) stereotyping
E) prototyping
d)
Tags: Shortcuts in Judging others- stereotyping
Quelle: p.178
259
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Allison has just presented her paper and has done a really good job. Why should you not want to present your own paper directly after she does?

A) to avoid the stereotyping effect
B) to avoid the halo effect
C) to avoid the contrast effect
D) to avoid the projection effect
E) to avoid the ultimate attribution error
c)
Tags: Shortcuts in judging others- contrast effect
Quelle: p.177
260
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The students in your class are presenting their orl presentations in front of the entire class. You have heard that there are several frequently used shortcuts to judging others and are wondering if any of these are being used by your teacher.
Jennifer has already presented two excellent reports. The report she has just presented is clearly
not as good as the first two reports, yet she is given the same high grade as before. What shortcut has the teacher used in this case?

A) the contrast effect
B) the halo effect
C) stereotyping
D) projection
E) assertion
a)
Tags: Shortcuts in judging others- contrast effect
Quelle: p.177
261
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You are on a team with two individuals who are “difficult.” The work has been divided among the three of you, and each
time your team meets, Janet and Jim disagree about the progress of the team project. Janet is convinced that Jim’s lack of progress is because he is inherently lazy and not because of some overwhelming problem with the project itself. The truth seems to be that Janet is not doing her part of the work.
What might you use to try to understand Janet and Jim’s behavior?

A) perception theory
B) attribution theory
C) decision-making theory
D) satisficing theory
E) Surber’s theory
a)
Tags: Summary and Implications for managers- Perception
Quelle: p. 196
262
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What is the segment in the three-component model of creativity that turns creative potential
into actual creative ideas?
A) expertise
B) creative thinking skills
C) intrinsic task motivation
D) intuition
E) realization
c)
Tags: Three compnent Model of creativity
Quelle: p.194
263
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What segment of the three-component model of creativity encompasses personality
characteristics that are associated with imagination?
A) expertise
B) creative thinking skills
C) intrinsic task motivation
D) intuition
E) realization
225)
b)
Tags: Three Component Model of Creativity
Quelle: p.193
264
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What is the segment of the three-component model of creativity that is the foundation for all creative work?

A) expertise
B) creative thinking skills
C) intrinsic task motivation
D) intuition
E) realization
a)


Tags: Three component Model of Creativity- Expertise
Quelle: p.193
265
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What trait does a decision maker need to have if they are to fully appraise a problem and even
see problems that others are not aware of?
A) creativity
B) rationality
C) conceptual style
D) intuition
E) individuality

a)

p.192

"... Creativity.. allows the decison maker to more fully appraise and understand the problem, incl. seeing problems other's can't see."

266
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Which of the following terms involves making decisions so as to provide the greatest good for the greatest number?

A) utilitarianism
B) justice
C) rights
D) satisficing
E) humanitarianism
a)

p.191, definition on bottom of page

"Utilitarianism = stystem in which decision are made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number?"
267
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Gene is regarded by his peers as an extremely creative designer of watercraft. He attributesmuch of his success to his family: he was raised by a traditional boat builder and from a very early age was surrounded by boats and the people who made them. To what element of the
three-component model of creativity does Gene attribute his success?

A) intuitiveness
B) insight
C) task motivation
D) expertise
E) creativity skills
d)

p.193

As Gene grew up with ships, his knowledge about it is superieur and this is influencing his increadible creativity.
268
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Who is most likely to engage in rumination?

A) a 10-year old girl
B) a 15-year old boy
C) a 40-year old woman
D) a 50-year old man
E) a 70-year old woman
c)

p.189

Rumminiation= overthinking ( überanalysieren)

".. the evidence indicates that women analyze decisions mor than men do."

"This gender differneces surface early, by age 11, ... girls are ruminating more than boys."

"".. this gender differnerence seems to lessen with age... smallest after age 65, when both women and men rumminate the least"

269
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People with high self-esteem appear to be especially susceptible to what?
A) hindsight bias
B) bounded rationality
C) escalation of commitment
D) randomness
E) the self-serving bias
e)

p.189

"Finally, people with high self esteem appear to be especially susceptible to the self-serving bias"
270
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Avoiding making decisions on Friday the 13th can be an example of which bias?

A) representative
B) commitment
C) randomness
D) confirmation
E) substitution
c)

p.186

"Randomness Error = The thendancy of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events"

zu deutsch= wenn du denkst, das Gott oder Schicksal für etwas verantortlich ist bzw deine Entscheidung bestimmt.
271
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What is the term used for an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative
information?
A) escalation of commitment
B) hindsight
C) satisficing
D) representative
E) rose-colored-glasses
a)

p.185, definition on bottom of page

" Escalation commitment = An increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information "
272
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What do we call the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that they can easily obtain?

A) representative bias
B) availability bias
C) confirmation bias
D) anchoring bias
E) principality
b)

p.185, definition on bottom of page:

"Availability bias= the tendency for people to base their judgements on information that is readily abalable to them"
273
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Where is overconfidence most likely to surface?

A) outside your area of expertise
B) in your area of expertise
C) with more education and training
D) among higher wage earners
E) among older workers

a)

p.184

" And overconfidence is most likely to surface when... considering issues or problems that are outside their area of expertise
274
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What is perhaps the least rational way of making a decision?
A) to remain objective
B) to rely on intuition
C) to use bounded rationality
D) to use a conscious thought-process
E) to use complete information
214)
b)

p.183

" Perhaps the least rational way of making decisions is to relay on intuition"
275
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How is the satisficing decision maker best characterized?
A) as using rationality
B) as using bounded rationality
C) as affected by anchoring bias
D) as using creativity
E) as relying on others to make decisions
212)
b)

p.182

see about bounded rationality
276
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Decision makers construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems
without capturing all their complexity. That is, they operate within the confines of .

A) optimal decision making
B) intuitive decision making
C) bounded rationality
D) rationality
E) common sense
c)

p-181-182

Bounded rationality: A process of making decisions by constrructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.
277
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In the real world what do people typically do?
A) follow the rational decision-making model
B) seek the optimal decision
C) obtain complete information
D) remain unbiased and objective
E) find an acceptable solution
210)
e)

p.181

"people are usally content to fin an acceptable or reasonable solution to a problem rather than an optimal one."
278
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Which is not one of the steps in the rational decision-making model?
A) defining the problem
B) identifying the decision criteria
C) rating the alternatives
D) computing the decision alternatives
E) selecting the best alternative
209)
d)

p.182, Ehibit 5-3

(rating= evaluating  -> c=step 5)
279
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Which of the following is not a comparison an employee can use in equity theory?

A) self-inside
B) self-goal
C) other-outside
D) self-outside
E) other-inside
B) self-goal
Tags: under Exhibit
Quelle: p. 227
280
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Which of the following is not true about referent comparisons in equity theory?

A) Both men and women prefer same-sex comparisons.
B) Employees in sex-segregated jobs use more cross-sex comparisons.
C) Employees with long tenure rely more heavily on co-workers for comparisons.
D) Upper-level employees make more other-outside comparisons.
E) Those with higher amounts of education tend to have better information about people in
other organizations.
B) Employees in sex-segregated jobs use more cross-sex comparisons.
Tags: under Exhibit
Quelle: p. 227
281
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Which of the following is not a predictable choice when employees perceive an inequity?

A) change their inputs
B) change their outcomes
C) choose a different referent
D) acquire more tenure
E) leave the field
D) acquire more tenure
Tags:
Quelle: p. 228
282
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James is a salaried employee whose job it is to proofread legal documents. He discovers that he is paid substantially more than his colleagues, even though their jobs and performances are very similar. What is likely to be his reaction to this discovery according to equity theory?

A) The quantity of documents he proofreads will decrease.
B) The quality of documents he proofreads will decrease.
C) The quantity and/or the quality of documents he proofreads will increase.
D) He will seek a position within the company commensurate with his pay.
E) There will be no effect.
C) The quantity and/or the quality of documents he proofreads will increase.
Tags: Equity theory
Quelle: p. 228
283
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What would be the predicted result of overpaying a piece-rate worker, according to equity theory?

A) Quality will increase.
B) Quantity will increase.
C) Quality will decrease.
D) There will be no effect.
E) The employee will seek a higher wage.
A) Quality will increase.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 228
284
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Equity theory historically focused on xxxxxx justice.

A) procedural
B) distributive
C) interpersonal
D) organizational
E) interactional
B) distributive
Tags:
Quelle: p. 229
285
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Contemporary research on equity theory focuses on xxxxxxx justice.

A) interpersonal
B) distributive
C) organizational
D) procedural
E) interactional
E) interactional
Tags:
Quelle: p. 230
286
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Gloria thinks that she is paid less than other workers in her division and feels extremely resentful. She starts taking long breaks and generally wasting time. Her actions were a result of
her perceiving what kind of injustice?

A) interactive
B) interpersonal
C) procedural
D) distributive
E) interactional
D) distributive
Tags:
Quelle: p. 229
287
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Jessica believes that she received an appropriate salary increase this year but she does not believe that the company’s methods for determining salary increases were fair. She believes that there is a problem with the firm’s xxxxxxxx justice.

A) interpersonal
B) distributive
C) equity
D) procedural
E) outcome
D) procedural
Tags:
Quelle: p. 229
288
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Who developed expectancy theory?

A) McClelland
B) Maslow
C) House
D) Vroom
E) Sondak
D) Vroom
Tags: Expectancy theory
Quelle: p. 231
289
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What theory attempts to measure the strength of one’s expectations and predict motivation?

A) expectancy theory
B) equity theory
C) goal setting theory
D) ERG theory
E) Surberist theory
A) expectancy theory
Tags:
Quelle: p. 231
290
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Helen is an office worker who processes health insurance forms. She has worked at her present job for three years. Initially she was criticized by her supervisor for sloppy work, but in the months after that improved considerably. Now she consistently processes her forms without errors and above quota. However she has found her supervisor has not responded to the extra effort she puts in, giving her no praise and no financial reward. Helen will most likely perceive that there is a problem in which of the following relationships?

A) rewards-personal goals
B) performance-reward
C) effort-performance
D) rewards-effort
E) performance-achievement
B) performance-reward
Tags: Expectancy theory
Quelle: p. 231
291
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The degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will generate a desired outcome is defined by expectancy theory as what kind of relationship?

A) performance-reward
B) effort-performance
C) reward-personal goal
D) effort-satisfaction
E) agent-actor
A) performance-reward
Tags: Expectancy theory
Quelle: p. 231
292
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Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory?

A) reward-satisfaction relationship
B) satisfaction-performance relationship
C) rewards-personal goals relationship
D) effort-satisfaction relationship
E) performance-achievement relationship
C) rewards-personal goals relationship
Tags:
Quelle: p. 231
293
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Which of the following motivation concepts clearly has an American bias?

A) need for power
B) need for affiliation
C) need for achievement
D) social needs
E) need for association
C) need for achievement
Tags: McCellands theory of needs
Quelle: p. 214
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Which of the following desires would most likely be common to a worker in China, Australia, Kenya, Canada, and Kuwait?

A) interesting work
B) higher pay
C) more flexibility
D) telecommuting options
E) advancement
A) interesting work
Tags:
Quelle: p. 236
295
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Your fellow employees have a terrible work situation. They work in an old, run-down building with an antiquated
heating system. The work itself is tedious and the supervisor is rarely available and only shows up to give reprimands for
production shortfalls. Nobody has received a promotion in two years. The work is boring, repetitious, and unrewarding.
You have decided to try to apply Herzberg’s two-factor theory.

You decide that your first job should be to remedy the hygiene factors. Which are they?

A) working conditions
B) intrinsic rewards
C) recognition
D) advancement
E) reprimands
A) working conditions
296
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Your fellow employees have a terrible work situation. They work in an old, run-down building with an antiquated
heating system. The work itself is tedious and the supervisor is rarely available and only shows up to give reprimands for
production shortfalls. Nobody has received a promotion in two years. The work is boring, repetitious, and unrewarding.
You have decided to try to apply Herzberg’s two-factor theory.

What action would probably most motivate the employees?

A) improving in working conditions
B) fixing the heating system
C) receiving recognition for a job well done
D) having the supervisor “hang around” more
E) relying more on punishment for poor performance
C) receiving recognition for a job well done
297
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You manage a department of five employees. You have identified that Joe scores high in the need for achievement, Mary scores high in the need for power, and Tim scores high in the need for affiliation. Sarah scored high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation. Doug scores low in both need for power and need for affiliation.

Which employee would be best suited to a challenging new assignment where they would receive rapid feedback?

A) Joe
B) Mary
C) Tim
D) Sarah
E) Doug
?
298
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You manage a department of five employees. You have identified that Joe scores high in the need for achievement, Mary scores high in the need for power, and Tim scores high in the need for affiliation. Sarah scored high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation. Doug scores low in both need for power and need for affiliation.

Which employee would be best suited as a mentor to new employees with a chance to develop friendships?

A) Joe
B) Mary
C) Tim
D) Sarah
E) Doug
?
299
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You manage a department of five employees. You have identified that Joe scores high in the need for achievement, Mary scores high in the need for power, and Tim scores high in the need for affiliation. Sarah scored high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation. Doug scores low in both need for power and need for affiliation.

Which employee would probably be best to leave in charge while you are on vacation?

A) Joe
B) Mary
C) Tim
D) Sarah
E) Doug
?
300
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You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good
performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired
at a higher salary than you are now making.

Which of the following will you probably use to evaluate this situation?

A) equity
B) expectancy
C) goal setting
D) reinforcement
E) self-enhancement
A) equity
301
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Which one of the following characteristics is not necessarily true about groups?

A) Group members are interdependent.
B) Groups have two or more members.
C) Groups have assigned goals.
D) Groups interact.
E) Groups have particular objectives.
C) Groups have assigned goals.
Tags: Defining and classifying groups
Quelle: p. 318
302
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When do informal groups appear?

A) in response to the need for social contact
B) in reaction to formal groups
C) as a result of social needs
D) most frequently in bureaucracies
E) when formal groups cannot meet their goals
A) in response to the need for social contact
Tags: Defining and classifying groups
Quelle: p. 318
303
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Julia, Bree, and David work in different departments but often eat lunch together. They are an example of what type of group?

A) formal
B) informal
C) command
D) task
E) reactant
B) informal
Tags: Defining and classifying groups
Quelle: p. 318
304
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Which of the following statements is true?

A) All task groups are also command groups.
B) All command groups are also task groups.
C) All task groups are also friendship groups.
D) All command groups are also informal groups.
E) All informal groups are also command groups.
B) All command groups are also task groups.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 319
305
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The group type that is determined by the organization chart is the xxxxxxx group.

A) job
B) work
C) authority
D) social
E) command
E) command
Tags:
Quelle: p. 318
306
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Which one of the following group types is organizationally determined?

A) job
B) task
C) work
D) authority
E) social
B) task
Tags:
Quelle: p. 319
307
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Employees who band together to seek improved working conditions form a(n) xxxxxxx group.

A) union
B) support
C) interest
D) work
E) emancipated
C) interest
Tags:
Quelle: p. 319
308
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Groups based on support for a given sports team are examples of what sort of group?

A) booster
B) interest
C) friendship
D) sports
E) miscreant
C) friendship
Tags:
Quelle: p. 319
309
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Which of the following is not one of the most common reasons why people join groups?

A) security
B) status
C) equity
D) power
E) goal achievement
C) equity
Tags: Exhibit Why do people join groups
Quelle: p. 319
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What are the five stages of group development?

A) generation, implementation, construction, production, termination
B) introduction, development, production, deterioration, adjournment
C) initiation, evolution, maturation, degeneration, termination
D) forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
E) acting, reacting, enacting, impacting, acting
D) forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
Tags: The five-stage model
Quelle: p. 320
311
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Which stage in group development is most characterized by uncertainty?

A) introduction
B) storming
C) forming
D) evolution
E) norming
C) forming
Tags: The five-stage model
Quelle: p. 320
312
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In the second stage of group development xxxxxxx.

A) close relationships are developed
B) the group demonstrates cohesiveness
C) intragroup conflict often occurs
D) the job task is performed
E) groups disband
C) intragroup conflict often occurs
Tags: The five-stage model
Quelle: p. 320
313
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After which stage of a group’s development is there a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group?

A) norming
B) storming
C) development
D) evolution
E) forming
B) storming
Tags: The five-stage model
Quelle: p. 320
314
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Which is the stage of group development characterized by the development of close relationships and cohesiveness?

A) bonding
B) norming
C) performing
D) initiating
E) forming
B) norming
Tags: The five-stage model
Quelle: p. 320
315
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After which stage of a group’s development has the group formed a common set of expectations of member behaviors?

A) norming
B) storming
C) maturation
D) development
E) forming
A) norming
Tags: The five-stage model
Quelle: p. 320
316
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A temporary task group working under a time-constrained deadline would be expected to behave in which of the following manners?

A) forming, then storming, then norming, then performing, and finally adjourning
B) exhibit long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes triggered by its members’ awareness of looming deadlines
C) develop plans, assign roles, determine and allocate resources, resolve conflicts, and set norms
D) group energy will move rapidly from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand
E) a period of activity where tasks are set and the bulk of the project is completed, followed by a period of inertia where what little work remains is performed
B) exhibit long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes triggered by its members’ awareness of looming deadlines
Tags:
Quelle: p. 322
317
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According to the punctuated equilibrium model, groups tend to experience what for the first half of the project?

A) inertia
B) reorganization and redirection
C) mid-life crisis
D) markedly accelerated activity
E) discord
A) inertia
Tags:
Quelle: p. 322
318
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Roles, norms, status, and cohesiveness are examples of xxxxxx .

A) structural variables
B) team mechanisms
C) static factors
D) team factors
E) group properties
E) group properties
Tags:
Quelle: p. 322
319
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What term is used for a set of expected behavior patterns associated with a particular position in a social unit?

A) role
B) role perception
C) role identity
D) role expectation
E) identity
A) role
Tags: Group property 1
Quelle: p. 323
320
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When Judith became a doctor she modeled her manner on her observations of more experienced doctors, and also on the behavior of doctors in medical dramas she had enjoyed watching as a child on TV. What is Judith modeling her manner upon?

A) the role behaviors of doctors
B) her role perception of doctors
C) the role identity of doctors
D) her role expectation of doctors
E) the core role actions of doctors
B) her role perception of doctors
Tags:
Quelle: p. 324
321
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Most people assume that a police officer should behave in a lawful manner, not show any favoritism to any particular group, and do their best to uphold the law. What term is used for this kind of belief?

A) a norm
B) a norm identity
C) a role expectation
D) a role perception
E) a norm violation
C) a role expectation
Tags:
Quelle: p. 324
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What term is used for the mutual expectations of what management expects from workers and what workers expect from management?

A) group norm
B) role expectation
C) role identity
D) psychological contract
E) reactive goals
D) psychological contract
Tags:
Quelle: p. 324
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Zach is devout and very active in his church. He is also a very dedicated employee. His manager offers him a promotion but the new role will require him to work Sundays. Zach would like the promotion, but realizes that it would force him to miss some church activities. It is likely that Zach is experiencing which of the following?

A) role conflict
B) role expectation
C) role perception
D) psychological conflict
E) cognitive reactance
A) role conflict
Tags:
Quelle: p. 324
324
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What term is used for acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by a group’s members?

A) norms
B) rules
C) standards
D) codes of behavior
E) explicit contracts
A) norms
Tags: Group properties 2 & 3
Quelle: p. 326
325
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Which is not a common class of norms appearing in most work groups?

A) performance
B) appearance
C) in-group status
D) social arrangement
E) allocation of resources
C) in-group status
Tags:
Quelle: p. 326
326
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Which of the following is not an example of a work group norm dealing with performance?

A) when an employee needs to look busy
B) how hard an employee should work
C) the appropriate levels of tardiness
D) the acceptable level of output
E) the importance of promptness
A) when an employee needs to look busy
Tags:
Quelle: p. 326
327
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What norms include things like appropriate dress and loyalty to the group or organization?

A) performance
B) appearance
C) social arrangement
D) allocation of resources
E) confluence
B) appearance
Tags:
Quelle: p. 326
328
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Norms that dictate with whom group members eat lunch, friendships on and off the job, and social games are xxxxxxx norms.

A) appearance
B) social arrangement
C) performance
D) leisure
E) confluence
B) social arrangement
Tags:
Quelle: p. 326
329
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A local government work-crew cleans up parks and other public spaces. In this crew the dirtiest jobs are generally given to the newest members, while the more senior members of the crew tend to do little except draw their pay. What is the class of norms that encompasses arrangements like this?

A) performance.
B) appearance
C) resource allocation
D) financial rewards
E) confluence
C) resource allocation
Tags:
Quelle: p. 326
330
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Which of the following is not a finding of Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne studies?

A) A worker’s behavior and sentiments are closely related.
B) Group standards are highly effective in establishing individual worker output.
C) Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
D) Competition between groups will maximize group output.
E) Group influences are significant in affecting individual behavior.
D) Competition between groups will maximize group output.
Tags: Hawthorne studies
Quelle: p. 326
331
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What term is used for the process by which an individual’s desire for acceptance by the group and the pressure by the group on individual members to match its standards results in a change in individual attitudes and behaviors?

A) conformity
B) coercion
C) commitment
D) convergence
E) confluence
A) conformity
Tags:
Quelle: p. 328
332
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The major contribution of the Asch study was to demonstrate the impact of xxxxxxx.

A) group pressures
B) seating arrangements
C) convergence
D) status
E) cognitive dissonance
A) group pressures
Tags:
Quelle: p. 329
333
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What term is used for antisocial actions by organizational members who voluntarily violate established norms and that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both?

A) ethical dilemmas
B) deviant workplace behavior
C) abnormal behavior
D) discommitment behavior
E) reactive affirmation behavior
B) deviant workplace behavior
Tags:
Quelle: p. 330
334
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Sally works as a salesperson in a department store. Whenever a customer asks for an item that is in stock but not on display, she usually tells them that the product is out of stock. “It’s a pain going into the stock-room to find an item,” says Sally. “Nobody in my department ever tells a customer the truth about what is in stock.” This example illustrates which of the following facts about deviant workplace behavior?

A) Deviant workplace behavior will arise when tasks that an employee is supposed to
perform are unpleasant or difficult.
B) Most workers do not consider lying to a customer be deviant workplace behavior.
C) Workers will lie to customers as long as the customers do not complain about it.
D) Deviant workplace behavior flourishes where it’s supported by group norms.
E) Groups will come to their own conclusions about what is and isn’t appropriate.
D) Deviant workplace behavior flourishes where it’s supported by group norms.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 330
335
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What term is used for the socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others?

A) regency
B) authority
C) status
D) command
E) magnus
C) status
Tags:
Quelle: p. 331
336
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A group is most likely to tolerate deviation from a group’s conformity norms by which of the following individuals?

A) a high status individual who does not care about the social rewards the group provides
B) a high status individual who is tightly integrated into the group’s social structure
C) a low status individual who has only recently entered the group
D) a low status individual who strongly wishes to integrate within the group
E) a low status individual who is not well regarded by the rest of the group
A) a high status individual who does not care about the social rewards the group provides
Tags: Status and norms
Quelle: p. 332
337
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High status people tend to xxxxxxx .

A) be more assertive
B) assist more
C) be more reflective
D) have superior insight
E) be well liked
A) be more assertive
Tags: Status and group interaction
Quelle: p. 332
338
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Your group is engaged in problem solving and your goal is fact-finding. Which of the following size group should be most effective?

A) 2
B) 4
C) 8
D) 10
E) 15
E) 15
Tags: Group property 4
Quelle: p. 333
339
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If your group must take action, which size should be most effective?

A) 3
B) 7
C) 12
D) 24
E) 100
B) 7
Tags: Group property 4
Quelle: p. 333
340
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What term is used for the tendency for individuals to spend less effort when working collectively?

A) groupthink
B) the rule of diminishing returns
C) social loafing
D) groupshift
E) clustering
C) social loafing
Tags: Group property 4
Quelle: p. 333
341
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What did Ringelmann conclude after he compared the results of individual and group performance?

A) The larger the group, the greater the individual productivity.
B) Individual productivity goes down as group size goes up.
C) Total productivity tends to decline in large groups.
D) Group size is not a determinant of individual productivity.
E) Groups served little purpose in organizations.
B) Individual productivity goes down as group size goes up.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 334
342
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Which of the following is an effective means of countering social loafing?

A) increase the rewards the group is given if it succeeds
B) increase the amount by which the group’s progress is monitored
C) provide means by which individual efforts can be identified
D) increase the size of the group
E) increase the group’s workload
A) increase the rewards the group is given if it succeeds
Tags:
Quelle: p. 335
343
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What term is used for the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and are motivated to stay in the group?

A) cohesiveness
B) integration
C) sociability
D) reliability
E) interdependence
A) cohesiveness
Tags:
Quelle: p. 335
344
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Which of the following is not likely to increase group cohesiveness?

A) a high level of group productivity
B) members spending a lot of time together
C) the existence of external threats
D) the group is physically isolated
E) bonding opportunities exist between members
C)
Tags:
Quelle: p. 335
345
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What will happen if group cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low?

A) Internal conflict will be high.
B) Internal conflict will be low.
C) Productivity will be high.
D) Productivity will be low.
E) It will have little effect on internal conflict or productivity.
D) Productivity will be low.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 335
346
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Group decisions are generally preferable to individual decisions when which of the following is sought?

A) acceptance of the solution
B) speed
C) efficiency
D) clear responsibility
E) a conjunctive solution
A) acceptance of the solution
Tags:
Quelle: p. 336
347
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Which is not a weakness of group decision making?

A) It is time consuming.
B) There is less originality.
C) It suffers from ambiguous responsibility.
D) It can be dominated by one or a few members.
E) It’s not clear who is accountable for bad decisions.
B) There is less originality.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 336
348
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Individual decisions are generally preferable to group decisions when which of the following is sought?

A) speed
B) creativity
C) acceptance
D) quality
E) broad unanimity
A) speed
Tags:
Quelle: p. 337
349
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Which of the following is a phenomenon in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views?

A) group conformity
B) groupshift
C) groupthink
D) compromise
E) risk transfer
C) groupthink
Tags:
Quelle: p. 338
350
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What result can groupshift have on the decisions a group makes?

A) They are made by groups rather than individuals.
B) They are generally riskier.
C) They are made more quickly.
D) They are less effective.
E) They are objectively incorrect.
B) They are generally riskier.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 340
351
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Which of the following is not an explanation for the phenomenon of groupshift?

A) Discussion creates familiarization among members.
B) Most first-world societies value risk.
C) The group leader usually gets the credit or blame for the group action.
D) The group diffuses responsibility.
E) Group discussion motivates members to show their willingness to take risks.
d
Tags:
Quelle: p. 340
352
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Which of the following is likely to generate the least innovative alternatives?

A) face-to-face interacting groups
B) brainstorming
C) Delphi technique
D) nominal group technique
E) electronic meeting
B) brainstorming
Tags:
Quelle: p. 341
353
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What sort of group should you avoid if you want to minimize interpersonal conflict?

A) interacting
B) brainstorming
C) nominal
D) electronic
E) social
a) interacting

see Ehibit 9-9- Effectivness criteria: potential for interpersonal conflit -> Interacting: HIGH!
Tags: Evaluating Group Effectiveness
Quelle: p. 342
354
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What is brainstorming?

A) a technique used to build group cohesiveness
B) a technique that tends to restrict independent thinking
C) a process for generating ideas
D) a process used mainly when group members cannot agree on a solution
E) the most effective means of generating answers
C) a process for generating ideas
Tags:
Quelle: p. 340
355
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Which of the following was the major finding of Zimbardo’s simulated prison experiment?

A) Status differences between groups will always result in conflict between those groups.
B) Group cohesiveness is so important that individuals will restrain their natural impulses in order to remain part of the group.
C) Individuals can rapidly assimilate new roles very different from their inherent personalities.
D) An individual’s emotions and the behavioral responses to those emotions are congruent.
E) When given the opportunity, people will tend to act in an oppressive manner to those around them.
C) Individuals can rapidly assimilate new roles very different from their inherent personalities.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 326
356
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Which of the following is true of role identity?

A) Role perception creates the attitudes and actual behaviors consistent with a role.
B) People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when the situation requires change.
C) There is considerable inertia in role identity after roles are changed.
D) Everyone is required to play one specific role in every situation.
E) No two people ever agree on what constitutes a role.
B) People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when the situation requires change.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 324
357
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When the group energy is focused on the task at hand, the group has moved to the xxxxxx stage.

A) storming
B) norming
C) production
D) maturation
E) performing
E) performing
Tags: The five-stage model
Quelle: p. 320
358
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Temporary groups with deadlines tend to follow the xxxxxx model.

A) sociometry
B) five-stage group development
C) punctuated equilibrium
D) cluster variance
E) frantic action
C) punctuated equilibrium
Tags: Exhibit 9-3
Quelle: p. 322
359
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Which of the following statements most accurately describes interest groups?

A) They are longer lasting than friendship groups.
B) They develop because individual members have one or more common characteristics.
C) They are formed because of some common objective.
D) They are governed by labor laws.
E) They are likely to involve great social conflict.
C) They are formed because of some common objective.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 319
360
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What sort of groups is defined by the organization’s structure?

A) informal
B) task
C) friendship
D) interest
E) formal
E) formal
Tags: Defining and classifying groups
Quelle: p. 318
361
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You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good
performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired
at a higher salary than you are now making.

Your referent comparison for equity theory is termed xxxxxx.

A) self-inside
B) self-outside
C) other-inside
D) other-outside
E) inside-outside
A) self-inside
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You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good
performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired
at a higher salary than you are now making.

How can your behavior at work be predicted to change?

A) You will work harder.
B) You will call in sick more often.
C) You will acknowledge that the new person hired is worth more.
D) You will not work so hard.
E) You will act to undermine the new employee.
D) You will not work so hard.
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Your fellow employees have a terrible work situation. They work in an old, run-down building with an antiquated
heating system. The work itself is tedious and the supervisor is rarely available and only shows up to give reprimands for
production shortfalls. Nobody has received a promotion in two years. The work is boring, repetitious, and unrewarding.
You have decided to try to apply Herzberg’s two-factor theory.

Which of the following statements would likely be true?

A) When the working conditions are improved, employees will be satisfied.
B) The relationship with the supervisor is a motivation factor.
C) Fixing the conditions that make the employees dissatisfied will not make them satisfied.
D) Employees are dissatisfied due to lack of recognition.
E) The major reason for dissatisfaction is probably the nature of the work itself.
C) Fixing the conditions that make the employees dissatisfied will not make them satisfied.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 212
364
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A theory based on “needs” is the premise for theories by all of the following except xxxxxxx.

A) McClelland
B) Alderfer
C) McGregor
D) Maslow
E) Vroom
E) Vroom
Tags:
Quelle: p. 231
365
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According to expectancy theory, the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual is known as what sort of relationship?

A) performance-reward
B) effort-performance
C) rewards-personal goals
D) effort-satisfaction
E) performance-achievement
C) rewards-personal goals
Tags:
Quelle: p. 231
366
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The theory that asserts that motivation depends upon an employee’s goals, and the belief that productive behavior will get these goals accomplished, is called xxxxxxx.

A) Herzberg’s dual-factor theory
B) McClelland’s three needs theory
C) Vroom’s expectancy theory
D) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
E) Alderfer’s ERG theory
C) Vroom’s expectancy theory
Tags:
Quelle: p. 231
367
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Mel has exceeded her budget by at least $200 every month for the last three months. After recognizing that this is a problem, she decides to use the rational decision-making model to decide what to do. What might be the next step she takes if she follows this model?

A) determine what she needs to take into account when making her decision
B) choose a method to cut her expenses
C) weigh the relative importance of each of her expenses
D) come up with different ways that would either reduce her expenses or increase her income
E) evaluate different ways that she could use to either reduce her expenses or increase her income
a)

p.181

Accorcing to the 6 steps in tarional decision making model, step 2 is identifying the decision criteriaA
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What is the first step in the rational decision-making model?

A) developing alternatives
B) defining the problem
C) identifying the decision criteria
D) weighing the decision criteria
E) collecting relevant data
b)

p.182

see exhibit 5-3 the 6 steps on rational Decision Making Model
369
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What is the major failure of reinforcement theory in explaining changes in behavior?

A) It cannot adequately describe the original behavior.
B) It originated in the studies of the responses of animals.
C) Most behavior is in fact environmentally caused.
D) It ignores the effect of rewards and punishments upon behavior.
E) It does not recognize the effect of feelings, attitudes, and other cognitive variables.
C) Most behavior is in fact environmentally caused.
Tags: Reinforcement theory
Quelle: p. 225
370
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In equity theory, individuals assess the xxxxxxx.

A) cost-benefit ratio
B) efficiency-effectiveness trade-off
C) quantity-quality trade-off
D) outcome-input ratio
E) pareto efficient outcome
D) outcome-input ratio
Tags: Equity theory
Quelle: p. 226
371
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When individuals compare their outcomes and inputs against those of others, the framework is xxxxxxx.

A) equity
B) expectancy
C) JCM
D) SIC
E) JAV
A) equity
Tags:
Quelle: p. 226
372
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When people perceive an imbalance in their outcome-input ratio relative to others, xxxxxx.

A) reinforcement theory is imbalanced
B) expectancy theory is violated
C) equity tension is created
D) distributive justice is questioned
E) they seek to move to another position of authority
C) equity tension is created
Tags: Equity theory
Quelle: p. 226
373
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According to , what is expected of people helps determine their behavior.

A) the fundamental attribution error
B) projection
C) self-selecting bias
D) the halo effect
E) the Pygmalion effect
e)

p.180

Accorcing to the Pygmalion effect we have like what other expect we behave like. So if a manager expects big thinks from her people, they are not liekely to let her down.
374
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What is another name for a self-fulfilling prophecy?
A) Pygmalion effect
B) projection
C) self-selecting bias
D) halo effect
E) prototyping
a)

p.180

The terms self-fulfilling prophecy and Pymalion effect have evolved to characterize the fact that an indivual's behavior is determindey by other people's expectations.
375
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Leone thinks that because her employee Josef went to an Ivy League college he is very
knowledgeable, and always asks his opinion on the firm’s investments. In reality, Josef knows
very little about investing, but makes sure he reads up on it so that he can give an informed
opinion to Leone. What has occurred in this situation?
A) profiling
B) a self-fulfilling prophecy
C) a self-serving bias
D) the fundamental attribution error
E) a projection event
203)
b)

p.180 and p.181 downward (definition)

Self-fulfiling prophecy= a situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consitent with the oroginal perceiption

-> kurz in deutsch: weil wir wissen ,das leute etwas bestimmtes von uns erwarten, zB das wir schlau sidn weil wir Abi haben versuchen wir ihre Erwartungen "zu entsprechen" und drücken uns zB gepflegt aus, obwohl wir vielleicht gar nich soooo schlau sind, wir versuchen also die Prophezeiung die Leute von uns haben selbst zu erfüllen
376
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When the police began searching for a serial killer, they stopped only vehicles carrying
Caucasian males. What are the police engaging in?
A) contrast effects
B) prototyping
C) the halo effect
D) selective perception
E) profiling
e)

p. 179

Profiling= form of stereotyping in which a group of induviduals is sihned out- typically in the basis of ethnicity. for instensive inquiry, scrutiny, or investigation.
377
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Which of the following statements is not an example of stereotyping?
A) There is no need to offer child-care to him; men aren’t interested in child care.
B) Don’t hire an older worker; they can’t learn new skills.
C) She was good at her last job, so she will be good at this one.
D) She won’t relocate for a promotion, since women don’t relocate.
E) The new hire will be emotionally insensitive, since he is a man.
c)

p.179

The other examples do stereotyp people because of their gender or age.
378
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When F. Scott Fitzgerald said, “The very rich are different from you and me,” and Hemingway
replied, “Yes, they have more money,” Hemingway refused to engage in what shortcut to judge
others?
A) projection
B) contrast effect
C) halo effect
D) stereotyping
E) prototyping
d)

p.179

Rich people= a special group, which certain characracteristics
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One of the shortcuts used to judge others involves evaluating a person based on how he/she
compares to other individuals on the same characteristic. What is this shortcut called?
A) selective perception.
B) contrast effects
C) the halo effect
D) prejudice
E) stereotyping
e)

p.179

Stereotyping= Judging somone on the basis of one's perception of the group which that person belongs
380
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Your rating in a job interview is high in contrast to the candidate who was interviewed directly
before you, who was rated extremely low. Your own high rating might be partially attributed to
which of the following?
A) the halo effect
B) contrast effects
C) projection
D) stereotyping
E) prototyping
196)
b)

p.177

Contrast Effects= Evaluation of a person#s charactersritic that is affected by compairison with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same charactersitics
381
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What is the term used for a general impression about an individual based on a single
characteristic such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance?
A) contrast effects
B) personal bias
C) prejudice
D) the halo effect
E) projection
195)
d)

p.177

"When we draw a general impression about an idividual on the basis of a single characteristic, such as intelligence, sociabillity or appearance, a HALO EFFECT is operating
382
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A committee is made up of 12 managers: three each from the sales, production, accounting, and
human resources departments. They read a comprehensive study of the company they work for,
and are asked which of its recommendations are most important. In discussion they find that the
managers perceive that the most important recommendations are those concerning their own
departments. This finding is most likely the result of what type of bias?
A) selective perception
B) halo effect
C) Pygmalion effect
D) self-serving bias
E) projection
194)
a)

p.176

"Because we cannot assimilate all that we observe we take in bits and pieces. But we don't choose randomly, rather we select them according to our interests, background, experince and attitudes..... because we see what we want to see..."
383
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Because it is impossible for us to assimilate everything we perceive, we engage in .
A) selective perception
B) memorization
C) mental desensitization
D) periodic listening
E) linear clustering
193
a)

p.176

see definition of selective persecption
384
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Investors bragged about their investing expertise during the stock market rally between 1996
and early 2000, then blamed analysts, brokers, and the Federal Reserve when the market
imploded in 2000. These investors were most probably guilty of what?
A) fundamental attribution error
B) self-serving bias
C) the halo effect
D) distinctiveness
E) selective perception
191)
b)

p.176

self serving bias= tendency to attribute  own success to internal factors such as ability ir effort, while putting the blame of failure on external factors
385
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Whenever Jane is successful she takes full credit for what has happened, but whenever she is
unsuccessful she attributes her failure to bad luck or blames one of her fellow employees. She is
guilty of .
A) fundamental attribution error
B) attribution bias
C) the halo effect
D) distinctiveness
E) self-serving bias
190)
e)

p.176

self serving bias= tendency to attribute  own success to internal factors such as ability ir effort, while putting the blame of failure on external factors
386
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What term is used for the tendency of an individual to attribute his own successes to internal
factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors?
A) fundamental attribution error
B) self-serving bias
C) consistency
D) selective perception
E) stereotyping
189)
b)

p.176

"... also tend to attribute their own success to internal factors such as ability ir effort, while putting the blame of failure on external factors. This is the self serving bias"
387
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Your boss never gives you the benefit of the doubt. When you were late back from lunch, he
assumed that you had simply taken too much time. He never considered that the elevators were
out and you had to walk up 10 flights of stairs. Your boss is guilty of .
A) self-serving bias
B) selective perception
C) fundamental attribution error
D) inconsistency
E) stereotyping
188)
c)

p.176

Fundamental attributen error= tendancy tounderestimate the influence of external factors and
overestimate the influence of internal factors, when making judgment about other people's behavior
388
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What term is used for the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and
overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of
others?
A) fundamental attribution error
B) self-serving bias
C) selective perception
D) consistency
E) actor bias
187)
a)

p.176

"... we make judgments about the behavior of other people, we tend to understestimate underestimate the influence of external factors and
overestimate the influence of internal factors
. This fundamental error can explain why... "
389
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What sort of actions is most likely to be attributed to external causes?
A) actions that have high distinctiveness, high consensus, and high consistency
B) actions that have high distinctiveness, high consensus, and low consistency
C) actions that have high distinctiveness, low consensus, and low consistency
D) actions that have low distinctiveness, low consistency, and high consensus
E) actions that have low distinctiveness, low consensus, and low consistency
186)
a)

p.175

see exhibit 5-2
390
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The more consistent a behavior, the more the observer is inclined to .
A) attribute it to interpretation
B) attribute it to internal causes
C) attribute it to consensus
D) attribute it to external causes
E) attribute it to distinctiveness
185)
b)

p.176

See Exhibit 5-2
391
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Janice is late for work each day by about ten minutes. How would attribution theory describe
this behavior?
A) It shows consensus.
B) It shows similarity.
C) It shows reliability.
D) It shows consistency.
E) It shows distinctiveness.
184)
d)

p.175

Because of the commoness of Janice's behavior, we can decribe it as consitency.
392
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If a person responds the same way over time, attribution theory states that the behavior shows
.
A) distinctiveness
B) consensus
C) consistency
D) continuity
E) stability
183)
c)

p.175

" ... consitency in a person's actions. Does the person respond the same way over time?
393
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If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, attribution theory
states that the behavior shows .
A) consensus
B) similarity
C) reliability
D) consistency
E) stability
a)

p.175

"If everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows concensus"

consensus= Konsens, Übereinstimmung
394
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What does consensus refer to in attribution theory?

A) There is general agreement about a perception.
B) Different people respond the same way in the same situation.
C) There is general agreement about how people desire to respond to the same situation.
D) Different people perceive a situation similarly.
E) All people behave precisely the same way in certain situations.
b)

p.175

"If everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows concensus"

consensus= Konsens, Übereinstimmung
395
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What term is used for the extent to which an individual displays different behaviors in different
situations?
A) continuity
B) integrity
C) stability
D) flexibility
E) distinctiveness
e)

p.175

"Destinctivness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situation"
396
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In attribution theory, what is distinctiveness?

A) whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in different situations
B) whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations
C) whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in similar situations
D) whether an individual displays different behaviors in similar situations
E) whether an individual displays different behavior from other people
b)

p.175

" Destinctivness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations

397
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Which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior?

A) An employee is late because he was partying late and then overslept.
B) An employee is late because of a flat tire.
C) An employee was fired because he slept on the job.
D) An employee was promoted because he was hard working.
E) An employee died from lung cancer after excessive tobacco use.
b)

p.175

You attribute the lateness of the employee situation forced, not under the personel control of him.
398
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Over the past two decades, business schools have added required courses on people skills to
many of their curricula. Why have they done this?

A) Managers no longer need technical skills in subjects such as economics and accounting to
succeed.
B) There is an increased emphasis in controlling employee behavior in the workplace.
C) Managers need to understand human behavior if they are to be effective.
D) These skills enable managers to effectively lead human resources departments.
E) A manager with good people skills can help create a pleasant workplace.
C) Managers need to understand human behavior if they are to be effective.

Tags: The importance of interpersonal skills
Quelle: p. 38 chapter 1
399
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Which of the following is not one of the four primary management functions?

A) controlling
B) planning
C) staffing
D) organizing
E) leading
C) staffing
Tags: Management functions
Quelle: p. 40
400
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Which of a manager’s primary roles requires the manager to define an organization’s goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving these goals and develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities?

A) controlling
B) planning
C) staffing
D) coordinating
E) leading
B) planning
Tags: Management functions
Quelle: p. 40
401
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Determining how tasks are to be grouped is part of which management function?

A) planning
B) leading
C) controlling
D) organizing
E) contemplating
D) organizing
Tags: Mangement functions
Quelle: p. 40
402
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Mintzberg concluded that managers perform 10 different, highly interrelated roles. Which of the following is one of the broad categories into which these roles could be grouped?

A) intrapersonal
B) institutional
C) decisional
D) affective
E) reflective
C) decisional
Tags: Management roles
Quelle: p.40
403
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As a manager, one of Joe’s duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department. Which Mintzberg managerial role is Joe acting in when he does this?

A) leadership role
B) liaison role
C) monitor role
D) figurehead role
E) spokesperson role
D) figurehead role
Tags: Interpersonal roles
Quelle: p. 40
404
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According to Mintzberg, one of management’s interpersonal roles is xxxxxxxx.

A) spokesperson
B) leader
C) negotiator
D) monitor
E) devil’s advocate
B) leader
Tags: Exhibit Minzbergs mangerial roles
Quelle: p. 41
405
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According to Fred Luthans and his associates, which of the following is considered a part of traditional management?

A) disciplining
B) decision making
C) exchanging routine information
D) acquiring resources
E) investing
B) decision making
Tags: Effective versus successful managerial activities
Quelle: p. 42
406
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Which of Luthans’ managerial activities involves socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders?

A) traditional management
B) communicating
C) human resource management
D) networking
E) investing
D) networking
Tags: Effective versus successful managerial activities
Quelle: p. 43
407
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How does Luthans define a manager’s success?

A) by the quantity and quality of their performance
B) by the satisfaction and commitment of their employees
C) by the rate and quantity of pay raises
D) by the speed of their promotion
E) by their scores on a 360-degree feedback analysis
D) by the speed of their promotion

Begründung:
....successfull (defined in terms of the speed of promotion within their organization)....
Tags:
Quelle: p. 43
408
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According to Luthans’ research, successful managers spent more of their time on xxxxxxx than on any other activity.

A) traditional management
B) human resource management
C) networking
D) communicating
E) hiring and firing
C) networking

Begründung:
Among successful managers, networking made the largest relative contribution to success.
Tags:
Quelle: p. 43
409
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What did a study of U.S. managers indicate about those managers who seek information from colleagues and employees?

A) They are rapidly promoted.
B) They are generally more popular.
C) They are less efficient as leaders.
D) They are generally given fewer promotions, raises and other rewards.
E) They are generally more effective managers.
E) They are generally more effective managers.
Tags: letzter Absatz
Quelle: p. 43
410
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The pie charts above show how 5 different managers spent their time. According to Luthans’ research, which manager is most likely to receive more promotions and other rewards associated with career success?

A) Manager A
B) Manager B
C) Manager C
D) Manager D
E) Manager E
C) Manager C
Tags: Exhibit Allocation of activities by time
Quelle: p. 43
411
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While the Functions, Roles, Skills, and Activities approaches to management all differ, they all recognize that effective and successful managers must develop which of the following?

A) people skills
B) technical skills
C) efficiency
D) entrepreneurialism
E) ability to network
A) people skills
Tags: A review of the managers job
Quelle: p. 44
412
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An OB study would be least likely to be used to focus on which of the following problems?

A) an increase in absenteeism at a certain company
B) a fall in productivity in one shift of a manufacturing plant
C) a decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition
D) an increase in theft by employees at a retail store
E) excessive turnover in volunteer workers at a non-profit organization
C) a decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition
Tags: Definition of OB
Quelle: p. 45
413
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What are the three primary determinants of behavior that organizational behavior focuses upon?

A) profit structure, organizational complexity, job satisfaction
B) individuals, profit structure, and job satisfaction
C) individuals, groups, and job satisfaction
D) groups, structure, and profit structure
E) individuals, groups, and structure
E) individuals, groups, and structure
Tags: Definition of OB
Quelle: p. 44
414
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xxxxxxxx is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.

A) Organizational development
B) Human Resources Management
C) Organizational behavior
D) People management
E) Corporate strategy
C) Organizational behavior
Tags: Definition of OB
Quelle: p. 44
415
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Which of the following is not a core topic of organizational behavior?

A) motivation
B) attitude development
C) conflict
D) resource allocation
E) work design
D) resource allocation
Tags: Definition of OB
Quelle: p. 45
416
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In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement your intuitive opinions with information derived in what fashion?

A) common sense
B) direct observation
C) systematic inquiry
D) speculation
E) organizational theory
C) systematic inquiry
Tags: Complementing intuition with systematic study
Quelle: p. 45
417
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Which of the following is a reason that the study of organizational behavior is useful?

A) Human behavior does not vary a great deal between individuals and situations.
B) Human behavior is not random.
C) Human behavior is not consistent.
D) Human behavior is rarely predictable.
E) Human behavior is often not sensible.
B) Human behavior is not random.
Tags: Complementing intuition with systematic study
Quelle: p. 45
418
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What approach involves managers centering their decisions on the best available scientific data?

A) intuition
B) organizational behavioral studies
C) substantive evidence approach
D) preconceived notions
E) evidence based management
E) evidence based management
Tags: letzter Satz
Quelle: p. 45
419
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What do the fundamental consistencies underlying the behavior of all individuals enable researchers to do?

A) observe human behavior
B) systematize human behavior
C) research human behavior
D) predict human behavior
E) detect human behavior
B) systematize human behavior
Tags: Systematic study
Quelle: p. 46
420
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Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence all constitute aspects of xxxxxxx study.

A) organizational
B) intuitive
C) theoretical
D) systematic
E) case-based
D) systematic
Tags:
Quelle: p. 46
421
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What do the authors of the textbook advise?

A) disregard your intuition because it’s usually wrong and will lead to incorrect assumptions
B) use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience
C) rely on research since it is almost always right and researchers don’t make mistakes
D) make predictions of individuals’ behaviors based on others’ actions
E) don’t trust preconceived notions unless you have substantive evidence to back them up
B) use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience
Tags:
Quelle: p. 47
422
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Organizational behavior is constructed from all of the following disciplines except xxxxxxx.

A) physics
B) psychology
C) anthropology
D) sociology
E) social psychology
A) physics
Tags: Exhibit Toward an OB discipline
Quelle: p. 48
423
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Psychology’s major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily at what level of analysis?

A) the level of the group
B) the level of the individual
C) the level of the organization
D) the level of the culture
E) the level of interacting groups
B) the level of the individual
Tags: Exhibit Toward an OB discipline
Quelle: p. 48
424
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The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals is known as xxxxxxx.

A) psychiatry
B) psychology
C) sociology
D) political science
E) organizational behavior
B) psychology
Tags: Psychology
Quelle: p. 47
425
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xxxxxxxxx blends concepts from psychology and sociology.

A) Corporate strategy
B) Anthropology
C) Political science.
D) Social psychology
E) Archaeology
D) Social psychology
Tags: Social-Psychology
Quelle: p. 48
426
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The science that focuses on the influence people have on one another is xxxxxxx.

A) psychology
B) anthropology
C) political science
D) social psychology
E) archaeology
D) social psychology
Tags: Social-Psychology
Quelle: p. 48
427
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Group behavior, power, and conflict are central areas of study for xxxxxxx.

A) archaeologists
B) sociologists
C) anthropologists
D) social psychologists
E) operations analysts
B) sociologists
Tags: Sociology
Quelle: p. 49
428
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xxxxxxxx focuses on the study of people in relation to their social environment.

A) Psychology
B) Sociology
C) Corporate strategy
D) Political science
E) Operations management
B) Sociology
Tags: Sociology
Quelle: p. 49
429
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Significant contributions to OB in the study of group behavior in organizations have been made by xxxxxxx.

A) psychologists
B) sociologists
C) anthropologists
D) political scientists
E) operations analysts
B) sociologists
Tags: Sociology
Quelle: p. 49
430
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Which field of study has contributed to OB through its research on organizational culture and formal organization theory and structure?

A) psychology
B) operations management
C) corporate strategy
D) political science
E) sociology
E) sociology
Tags: Sociology
Quelle: p. 49
431
Kartenlink
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Which of the following fields has most helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different countries?

A) anthropology
B) psychology
C) political science
D) operations research
E) psycholinguistics
A) anthropology
Tags: Anthropology
Quelle: p. 49
432
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The subject of organizational culture has been most influenced by which behavioral science discipline?

A) anthropology
B) psychology
C) social psychology
D) political science
E) corporate strategy
A) anthropology
Tags: Anthropology
Quelle: p. 49
433
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Which of the following statements best describes the current status of Observational Behavior concepts?

A) They are based on universal truths.
B) They can be used to predict human behavior only if the situation is clearly specified.
C) There is general consensus among OB researchers and scholars on the simple concepts
that underlie most human behavior.
D) The cause-effect principles that tend to apply to all situations have been discovered.
E) Cause and effect relationships for most human behaviors have been isolated.
A) They are based on universal truths.

Tags: There are few absolutes in OB
Quelle: p. 50
434
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There are xxxxxxx simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior.

A) an infinity of
B) absolutely no
C) a confusing array of
D) fourteen
E) few if any
E) few if any
Tags: There are few absolutes in OB
Quelle: p. 50
435
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In order to predict human behavior with any degree of accuracy, what sort of variables must be taken into account?

A) global
B) general
C) dependent
D) non-reactive
E) contingency
E) contingency
Tags: There are few absolutes in OB
Quelle: p. 50
436
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xxxxxxx is/are the number one reason that business travelers have cut back on their travel.

A) Lower profits
B) Shareholder interventions
C) Greater communications technology
D) Better accounting principles
E) Fear of terrorism
E) Fear of terrorism
Tags: Managing people during the war of terror
Quelle: p. 50
437
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Which of the following OB topics is not central to managing employees’ fears about terrorism?

A) emotion
B) motivation
C) communication
D) leadership
E) work design
E) work design
Tags: Managing people during the war of terror
Quelle: p. 52
438
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Whereas xxxxxx focuses on differences among people from different countries, xxxxxx addresses differences among people within given countries.

A) workforce diversity; globalization
B) globalization; workforce diversity
C) culture; diversity
D) culturization; workforce diversity
E) psychology; social psychology
B) globalization; workforce diversity
Tags: Managing workforce diversity
Quelle: p. 52
439
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xxxxxxxx is a measure of how organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.

A) Globalization
B) Workforce diversity
C) Affirmative action
D) Organizational culture
E) Operational homogeneity
B) Workforce diversity
Tags: Managing workforce diversity
Quelle: p. 52
440
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In what way does current thought on workplace diversity differ from the older “melting-pot” assumption?

A) by recognizing that employees don’t set aside their cultural values, lifestyle preferences, and differences when they come to work
B) by realizing that people from diverse backgrounds will automatically begin to integrate into the larger workplace and community over time
C) by taking active steps to minimize the effect of cultural values and lifestyle preference within the workplace
D) by openly seeking a heterogeneous workplace and avoiding homogeneity wherever possible
E) by using techniques such as structured workshops to show employees that behavior that is perfectly valid within their community may not be valid in the context of the workplace
A) by recognizing that employees don’t set aside their cultural values, lifestyle preferences, and differences when they come to work
Tags: Embracing diversity
Quelle: p. 53
441
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In 2003, which group made up 46.7 percent of the U.S. labor force?

A) people over the age of 65
B) Latinøas
C) African-Americans
D) men
E) women
E) women
Tags: Changing U.S. demographies
Quelle: p. 54
442
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What is the probable consequence of the fact that women significantly outnumber men on U.S. college campuses?

A) Eventual parity in the number of men and women in the workforce.
B) An increase in the number of technical positions filled by women.
C) An increase in competition between men for professional and managerial jobs
D) A steady increase in the number of technical, professional, and managerial positions
E) A decrease in the competition for jobs in positions that have traditionally been filled by women.
D) A steady increase in the number of technical, professional, and managerial positions
Tags: Changing U.S. demographies
Quelle: p. 54
443
Kartenlink
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Increasingly, we can expect that women will be hired into xxxxxx positions.

A) menial
B) traditionally female
C) medical (nurse)
D) socially-oriented
E) professional
E) professional
Tags: Changing U.S. demographies
Quelle: p. 54
444
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What was the most significant change in the U.S. labor force during the last half of the twentieth century?

A) substantial decreases in the number of workers who are under 55
B) increases in the percentage of U.S. citizens of Hispanic origin
C) increasing numbers of African-Americans at all levels within the workforce
D) the steady increase in the percentage of workers that are men
E) the rapid increase in the percentage of workers that are women

e)

Rapid increase in the percentage of workers thar are women,
P. 54: The most significant change in the U.S. laborforce  during the last half of the 20th century was the rapid increase in number of female workers.
The first half of the twenty-first century will be notable for changes in racial and ethnic composition. E.g. Hispanics.
Tags: Changing U.S. demographies
Quelle: p. 54
445
Kartenlink
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Which of the following statements is not an implication of increased workplace diversity?

A) Managers should recognize differences between workers.
B) Diversity training should be provided.
C) Employee benefits should be revamped to accommodate the different needs of different
employees.
D) It is critical that all workers be treated alike.
E) Innovation and creativity in organizations is likely to increase.
E) Innovation and creativity in organizations is likely to increase.
Tags: Implications
Quelle: p. 54
446
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According to the textbook, when diversity is not managed properly, there is a potential for xxxxxx.

A) higher creativity
B) communication benefits
C) labor cost inequities
D) increased competitiveness
E) higher turnover
E) higher turnover
Tags: first sentence
Quelle: p. 55
447
Kartenlink
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According to management guru Tom Peters, almost all quality improvement comes from xxxxxx of design, manufacturing, layout, processes, and procedures.

A) modification
B) stratification
C) integration
D) separation
E) simplification
E) simplification
Tags: Improving quality and productivity
Quelle: p. 55
448
Kartenlink
0
Today’s managers understand that the success of any effort at improving quality and productivity must include xxxxxx.

A) process reengineering
B) quality management programs
C) customer service improvements
D) employees
E) manufacturing simplification
D) employees
Tags: Improving quality and productivity
Quelle: p. 55
449
Kartenlink
0
The majority of employees today in developed countries work in xxxxxx.

A) manufacturing jobs
B) service jobs
C) MNCs
D) government agencies
E) the military
B) service jobs
Tags: Improving customer service
Quelle: p. 55
450
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Approximately xxxxxxx % of the U.S. labor force is employed in service industries.

A) 10
B) 25
C) 40
D) 60
E) 80
E) 80
Tags: Improving customer service
Quelle: p. 55
451
Kartenlink
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Service industry jobs include all of the following except xxxxxxx.

A) fast good counter worker
B) sales clerk
C) waiter
D) nurse
E) production line worker
E) production line worker
Tags: Improving customer service
Quelle: p. 55
452
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Which of the following factors makes it imperative that organizations be fast and flexible?

A) temporariness
B) corporate excess
C) truncated capacity
D) advances in corporate strategy
E) globalization
A) temporariness
Tags: Coping with temporariness
Quelle: p. 57
453
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Given the climate of “temporariness” in modern organizations, employees must xxxxxxx.

A) continually update their knowledge and skills
B) be prepared to stay in the same position for longer periods of time
C) make closer connections to their peers
D) foster friendship within the work environment
E) limit their mobility if they hope to compete
A) continually update their knowledge and skills
Tags: Coping with temporariness
Quelle: p. 57
454
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Which of the following is the major challenge to managers in a fully networked organization?

A) eliminating the need for paper communication by relying entirely on email, file transfers and the like
B) retaining team members who can easily move to another employer when demand for their services changes
C) managing contract and temporary workers
D) maintaining a “virtual office” through the use of computers, interoffice networks and the Internet
E) managing people who work together but are geographically separated
D) maintaining a “virtual office” through the use of computers, interoffice networks and the Internet
Tags: Working in networked organizations
Quelle: p. 58
455
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xxxxxxx allow(s) people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart.

A) Flexible cubicles
B) Stratified work environments
C) Cyber-empowerment machines
D) widespread use of computers
E) Networked organizations
E) Networked organizations
Tags: Working in networked organizations
Quelle: p. 58
456
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Which of the following has not contributed to blurring the lines between employees’ work life and personal life?

A) the creation of global organizations
B) communications technology allowing employees to work any time and from any place
C) organizations asking employees to put in longer hours
D) creation of flexible teams
E) the increase in dual career households
D) creation of flexible teams
Tags: Helping employees balance work-life conflicts
Quelle: p. 58
457
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What growth area in OB research concerns how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential?

A) positive organizational scholarship
B) ethical behavioral research
C) balancing work-life conflict
D) networked organizational research
E) temporariness studies
A) positive organizational scholarship
Tags: Creating a positive work envirnoment
Quelle: p. 59
458
Kartenlink
0
Situations where an individual is required to define right and wrong conduct are termed xxxxxxx.

A) diversity issues
B) human resource problems
C) ethical dilemmas
D) loyalty situations
E) social puzzles
C) ethical dilemmas
Tags: Improving ethical behavior
Quelle: p. 60
459
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A model is a(n) xxxxxxxx.

A) abstraction of reality
B) someone held in high esteem
C) independent variable
D) real-world scenario
E) dependent variable
A) abstraction of reality
Tags: Definition of model
Quelle: p. 61
460
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Which of the following has only recently been considered a primary dependent variable in organizational behavior?

A) productivity
B) absenteeism
C) turnover
D) job satisfaction
E) organizational citizenship behavior
E) organizational citizenship behavior
Tags: The dependent variables
Quelle: p. 61
461
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At its root, productivity involves concern for both xxxxxxx.

A) dependence and independence
B) diversity and homogeneity
C) motivation and distraction
D) absenteeism and motivation
E) effectiveness and efficiency
E) effectiveness and efficiency
Tags: Productivity
Quelle: p. 61
462
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Which of the following is an example of being an efficient company?

A) operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output
B) creating the highest customer satisfaction ratings
C) meeting the production schedule
D) obtaining the highest market share
E) maximizing diversity at high cost
A) operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output
Tags: Productivity
Quelle: p. 61
463
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Why did Sears try to improve the employee-customer interaction through training of its employees?

A) to generate additional revenue
B) to decrease merchandise returns
C) to improve repeat customer business.
D) to increase job satisfaction
E) to lower complaints made about employee behavior
A) to generate additional revenue
Tags: Productivity
Quelle: p. 62
464
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0
What term is used to describe voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization?

A) absenteeism
B) turnover
C) downsizing
D) truancy
E) social atrophy
B) turnover
Tags: Turnover
Quelle: p. 63
465
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xxxxxxx is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirement, but that promotes the effective functioning of the organization.

A) Productivity
B) Motivation
C) Organizational citizenship behavior
D) Organizational behavior
E) Corporate strategy
C) Organizational citizenship behavior
Tags: OCB
Quelle: p. 64
466
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0
Individual-level independent variables include all of the following except xxxxxxx.

A) leadership
B) learning
C) perception
D) motivation
E) decision-making
A) leadership
Tags: Individual-level variables
Quelle: p. 66
467
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0
Imagine that Kristen McKay is a manager at a company specializing in bread and bread-baking paraphernalia. Kristen
performs all the normal management functions outlined in your textbook. Answer the following questions based on
Henri Fayol’s work.

When Ms. McKay develops a strategy for achieving her department’s goals, she is performing the xxxxxxx function of management.

A) planning
B) organizing
C) leading
D) controlling
E) reacting
A) planning
Tags: Management functions
Quelle: p. 40
468
Kartenlink
0
Imagine that Kristen McKay is a manager at a company specializing in bread and bread-baking paraphernalia. Kristen
performs all the normal management functions outlined in your textbook. Answer the following questions based on
Henri Fayol’s work.

When Ms. McKay determines which employees will do what tasks, she is performing the xxxxxxx function of management.

A) planning
B) organizing
C) leading
D) controlling
E) reacting
B) organizing
Tags: Management functions
Quelle: p. 40
469
Kartenlink
0
Imagine that Kristen McKay is a manager at a company specializing in bread and bread-baking paraphernalia. Kristen
performs all the normal management functions outlined in your textbook. Answer the following questions based on
Henri Fayol’s work.

When Ms. McKay motivates her employees and attempts to resolve conflicts among department members, she is performing the xxxxxxx function of management.

A) planning
B) organizing
C) leading
D) controlling
E) reacting
C) leading
Tags: Management functions
Quelle: p. 40
470
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0
Imagine that Kristen McKay is a manager at a company specializing in bread and bread-baking paraphernalia. Kristen
performs all the normal management functions outlined in your textbook. Answer the following questions based on
Henri Fayol’s work.

When Ms. McKay compares projected sales to actual sales in her department, she is performing the xxxxxxx function of management.

A) planning
B) organizing
C) leading
D) controlling
E) reacting
D) controlling
Tags: Management functions
Quelle: p. 40
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Josef Nobles has been a manager at Mountain Chemicals for five years. Hired for his expertise in project accounting, he
rose quickly through the ranks and is now the head of the accounting and finance department. Josef is viewed as the
rising star in the organization by his superiors.

According to Katz, the skills that Mr. Nobles was hired for were what type of skill?

A) human
B) conceptual
C) technical
D) controlling
E) directing
C) technical
Tags: Management skills
Quelle: p. 42
472
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Josef Nobles has been a manager at Mountain Chemicals for five years. Hired for his expertise in project accounting, he
rose quickly through the ranks and is now the head of the accounting and finance department. Josef is viewed as the
rising star in the organization by his superiors.

Based on what little we know, we can conclude that according to Luthans, Mr. Nobles is probably best at the management activity of xxxxxxx.

A) networking
B) communicating
C) working with technology
D) controlling
E) directing
A) networking
Tags: Exhibit Allocation of activities by time
Quelle: p. 43
473
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Josef Nobles has been a manager at Mountain Chemicals for five years. Hired for his expertise in project accounting, he
rose quickly through the ranks and is now the head of the accounting and finance department. Josef is viewed as the
rising star in the organization by his superiors.

Given the information we have, Mr. Nobles would probably be categorized by Luthans as what type of manager?

A) effective
B) efficient
C) successful
D) productive
E) type A
C) successful
Tags: Exhibit Allocation of activities by time
Quelle: p. 43
474
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You are bringing together faculty from different behavioral disciplines to author a new textbook in organizational
behavior. Represented are professors from psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science, and industrial engineering.

The faculty member from xxxxxx should furnish information about personality, learning, and motivation.

A) sociology
B) psychology
C) anthropology
D) political science
E) industrial engineering
B) psychology
Tags: under Exhibit
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475
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You are bringing together faculty from different behavioral disciplines to author a new textbook in organizational
behavior. Represented are professors from psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science, and industrial engineering.

Which professor out of this group would you expect to address issues of communication?

A) the psychologist
B) the anthropologist
C) the political scientist
D) the social psychologist
E) the industrial engineer
D) the social psychologist
Tags:
Quelle: p. 48
476
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You are bringing together faculty from different behavioral disciplines to author a new textbook in organizational
behavior. Represented are professors from psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science, and industrial engineering.

You should expect that the faculty member from xxxxxx will probably contribute information about large scale group behavior.

A) sociology
B) psychology
C) social psychology
D) anthropology
E) industrial engineering
C) social psychology
Tags:
Quelle: p. 49
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The manager at a construction site observes that he is spending a great deal of time interviewing prospective employees. This is due to the large amount of absenteeism and turnover among his skilled workers. On questioning exiting employees he discovers that many of them quit because they feel the workplace is too dangerous. In particular, several foremen have stated that the need to get the job done quickly is more important than a few rules, and have gone as far as to mock the courage of workers who question this attitude.

What is not a dependent variable that the manager wishes to explain in this case?

A) turnover
B) absenteeism
C) time spent interviewing new hires
D) deviant workplace behavior
E) the skill level of his workers
E) the skill level of his workers
Tags: The dependent variables
Quelle: p. 61
478
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Allison and Gail both are studying for a final exam. Both have a goal of attaining a grade of 91 or better. Gail studied 6 hours and made a grade of 92. Allison studied for 9 hours and also made a grade of 92.

Which of the students was effective?

A) only Gail
B) only Allison
C) neither Gail nor Allison
D) both Gail and Allison
E) insufficient information to judge
D) both Gail and Allison
Tags: Productivity
Quelle: p. 61
479
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Allison and Gail both are studying for a final exam. Both have a goal of attaining a grade of 91 or better. Gail studied 6 hours and made a grade of 92. Allison studied for 9 hours and also made a grade of 92.

Which of the following statements is true?

A) Gail is more efficient than Allison.
B) Allison is more efficient than Gail.
C) Gail is more effective than Allison.
D) Allison is more effective than Gail.
E) Gail and Allison are equally efficient.
A) Gail is more efficient than Allison.
Tags: Productivity
Quelle: p. 61
480
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Allison and Gail both are studying for a final exam. Both have a goal of attaining a grade of 91 or better. Gail studied 6 hours and made a grade of 92. Allison studied for 9 hours and also made a grade of 92.

Which of the students was more productive?

A) Gail
B) Allison
C) Neither Gail nor Allison were productive.
D) It is impossible to tell from the information given.
E) They were equally productive.
a) Gail is more productive than Allison. Gail reach the same result in less Time, and is thus more efficient (=more Productive)
Tags: Productivity
Quelle: p. 61
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Which of the following statements is true about the term “ability”, as it is used in the field of organizational behavior?

A) It refers to an individual’s willingness to perform various tasks.
B) It is a current assessment of what an individual can do.
C) It refers exclusively to intellectual skills.
D) It refers exclusively to physical skills.
E) It is a prediction of future aptitude based on current attitudes.
B) It is a current assessment of what an individual can do.
Tags: Ability
Quelle: p. 79
482
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Which one of the following words is the best synonym for “ability”, as the term is used in organizational behavior?

A) motivation
B) capacity
C) experience
D) intellect
E) wisdom
D) intellect

It is B) capacity. See dictionary or definition of ability. Ability= An individual's Capacity to perdorm the various tasks in a job.
Tags: Intellectual abilities
Quelle: p. 79
483
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Which of the following is not a dimension of intellectual ability?

A) number aptitude
B) perceptual speed
C) spatial visualization
D) dynamic flexibility
E) social aptitude
D) dynamic flexibility
Tags: Exhibit Dimensions of intellectual abilities
Quelle: p. 79
484
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What is a factor of intelligence that suggests that it makes sense to talk about overall intelligence?

A) general mental ability
B) intelligent quotient
C) ability
D) cultural intelligence
E) perceptual speed
A) general mental ability
Tags: GMA
Quelle: p. 80
485
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Which behavioral science discipline is most focused on understanding individual behavior?

A) sociology
B) social psychology
C) psychology
D) anthropology
E) organizational behavior
C) psychology
Tags: Exhibit Toward an OB discipline
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According to Mintzberg, when a manager searches the organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change, the manager is acting in which role?

A) negotiator
B) entrepreneur
C) monitor
D) resource allocator
E) reflective analyst
B) entrepreneur
Tags: Exhibit Minzbergs managerial roles
Quelle: p. 41
487
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Robert Katz identified three essential skills that managers need to have in order to reach their goals. What are these skills?

A) technical, decisional and interpersonal
B) technical, human, and conceptual
C) interpersonal, informational and decisional
D) conceptual, communication and networking
E) human, informational and communication
B) technical, human, and conceptual
Tags: Management skills
Quelle: p. 42
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A manager is valued by her colleagues for her ability to perform effective break-even analysis on upcoming ventures. In this case, her colleagues value her for competencies that fall within which of Katz’s essential management skills categories?

A) technical
B) communication
C) human
D) conceptual
E) education
A) technical
Tags: Management skills
Quelle: p. 42
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According to Katz, technical skills encompass the ability to xxxxxxxx.

A) analyze and diagnose complex situations
B) exchange information and control complex situations
C) apply specialized knowledge or expertise
D) initiate and oversee complex projects
E) communicate effectively with others
C) apply specialized knowledge or expertise
Tags: Management skills
Quelle: p. 42
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Which one of the following would not be considered a human skill in Katz’s structure?

A) decision making.
B) communicating
C) resolving conflicts
D) working as part of a team
E) listening to others
A) decision making.

Begründung:
...more a conceptual skill.
Tags:
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According to Katz, when managers have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations, they possess xxxxxxxx skills.

A) technical
B) leadership
C) problem-solving
D) conceptual
E) reactive
D) conceptual
Tags: Management skills
Quelle: p. 42
492
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When individuals observe another person’s behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is
internally or externally caused. This phenomenon is most directly relevant to which of the
following?
A) the Pygmalion effect
B) projection theory
C) attribution theory
D) selective perception theory
E) expectancy theory
177)
c)

p.175

Attribution theory- an attempt to determine whether individuals behavior is internally or externally.
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What is the name of the theory that deals with how we explain behavior differently depending
on the meaning we assign to the actor?
A) behavioral theory
B) judgment theory
C) selective perception theory
D) attribution theory
E) equality theory
e)

p.175

Attribution theory tries to explain the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on the meaning, we attribute to a given behavior."
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What is the most relevant application of perception concepts to OB?
A) the perceptions people form about each other
B) the perceptions people form about their employer
C) the perceptions people form about their culture
D) the perceptions people form about society
E) the perceptions people form about external reality
175)
a)

p.174

"Now we turn to the most relevant application of perceiption concepts to OB. This is the issue of person perception, or the perceptions people form about each other"
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The time at which an object or event is seen is an example of what type of factor influencing the perceptual process?

A) perceiver
B) target
C) social
D) reality
E) context
e)

p.174

" The context in which we see objects or events is also important. The time at which we see an object or event can influence attention, as an location, light, heat, or any number of situational factors"
496
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Which of the following is not true about our perceptions of a target?
A) Objects that are close together will be perceived together rather than separately.
B) Persons that are similar to each other tend to be grouped together.
C) Targets are usually looked at in isolation.
D) Motion, sounds, size, and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it.
E) Objects that are distant from one another will be perceived separately rather than as a
group.
c)

p.174

".. our tendancy to group close things and similar things together" -> a and b are facts , e as well, because the same allplies for the opposite.

Factors in the target: Novelty, Motions, Sounds, Size,Background, Proximity, Similarity. --> d is a fact
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David has the opinion that people who drive SUVs are dangerous drivers. He often perceives
that people driving SUVs are doing so in a dangerous manner, even when other observers can
see nothing wrong with the behavior of the SUV drivers. What factor in David is affecting his
perception in this case?
A) his interests
B) his experiences
C) his expectations
D) his motives
E) his background
b)

p.174

He made the experinace that SUV drove carelessly in the past, that's wahy he perceives that all SUV drivers are dangerous drivers.
498
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Which of the following is not a factor in the individual perceiver?
A) attitude
B) motive
C) expectation
D) location
E) perception
d)

p.174

Location is an factor of the context in which we see the object or event. It is not a factor of the individual perceiver
(perceiver= "Wahnehmer")
499
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Two people see the same thing at the same time yet interpret it differently. Where do the factors
that operate to shape their dissimilar perceptions reside?
A) the perceivers
B) the target
C) the timing
D) the context
E) the situation
a)

p. 174

The perseivers (indivual, who perceives the environment/target) attitude, motives, interests, experiances and expactations rae differnet. That's why the 2 poeple evaluate the situation different.
500
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What are the three classes of factors that influence perception?
A) factors in the setting, factors in the environment, and factors in the motives
B) factors in the perceiver, factors in the target, and factors in the situation
C) factors in the character, factors in knowledge, and factors in experience
D) factors in the personality, factors in the character, and factors in the values
E) factors in the senses, factors in the surroundings, and factors in the lighting
b)

p.174

See Exhibit 5.1.
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What is the relationship between what one perceives and objective reality?
A) They are the same.
B) They can be substantially different.
C) They should be the same.
D) They are rarely if ever the same.
E) They cannot be the same.
b)

p.179

"However, what we perceive can be substantially different from objective reality"
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What is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment?

A) interpretation
B) environmental analysis
C) social verification
D) outlook
E) perception
e)

p.179

"Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in oder to give meaning to their environment."
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In the first step of the OB Mod program, your manager will most likely be attempting to identify those five to ten percent of behaviors that may account for up to percent of each employee’s performance.
A) 20-25 B) 40-50 C) 60-70 D) 70-80 E) 100
d)

p.96

" The first step OB Mod, therfore is idetifying critiacl behaviors  that make a significant impact on the employeers job performance. These are are those 5 to 10 persent of behaviors that may account for 70 or 80 percent of each employees performance"
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What is the first step that your manager is likely to take? (OB Mod)
A) identify behavioral consequences
B) identify critical behaviors
C) evaluate performance improvement
D) develop baseline data
E) none of the above
b)

p.96

see the five steps of OB Mod
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Your manager has read about the now-classic study of Emery’s use of OB Mod. He was impressed by the savings to thecompany of $2 million over a three-year period. He has announced that he is implementing an OB Mod program at your organization.
You can expect to see the application of which of the following in the work setting?

A) reinforcement concepts to individuals
B) open book management
C) additional stock option plans
D) analysis of biographical characteristics
E) higher health care benefits
a)

p.96-97

"OB MOD= The application of reinforcement conceots to individuals on the work setting"
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You know that the reinforcement schedule that your firm chooses for compensation will have an impact on the behavior of employees. Which of the following is not likely based on available research?

A) Continuous reinforcement schedules will lead to early satiation.
B) Continuous reinforcement schedules are appropriate for newly emitted, unstable, or low-frequency responses.
C) Variable schedules do not clearly link performance and rewards.
D) Fixed schedules will lead to higher performance than variable schedules.
E) Variable schedules will be highly effective.
d) UND c)!
Hier bin ich mir sicher, das ein Fehler drin ist, weil definitiv diese Dinge laut Text falsch sind

p.94-95

"Continuous reinforcement schedules will lead to early satiation." -> a)

"Continuous reinforcement schedules are appropriate for newly emitted, unstable, or low-frequency responses."
-> b

"...Variable interval schedules gnerate high reates of response.... because og the HIGH CORRELATION between performance and reward. " -> c ist also falsch (correlation-übereinstimmung)

"In general, variable schedules tend to lead to higher performance than fixed schedules" -> d ist also falsch

das e richtig ist erkennt man aus den oben angeführten Zitaten.

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John’s attendance has historically been unreliable and you have decided to use reinforcement and compliment him when his attendance record shows improvement. The most effective schedule of reinforcement will probably be .
A) variable-interval intermittent
B) fixed-interval intermittent
C) continuous
D) punishment-based
E) shaped
a)

p.95

".......In contrast intermittend reinforcers preclude early satiation, because they don't follow every response"

".......In contrast, variable-interval schedules generate high rates of response and more stable and consistent behavior, because of the high corelation between performance and reward and because of the uncertainly involves-the employee tends to be more alert because there is a surprise factor."
508
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Gerald is a staff accountant who is visited several times a year by the corporate auditor. These visits are unannounced. This is an example of reinforcement.
A) intermittent, fixed-interval
B) continuous
C) intermittent, variable-interval
D) negative
E) reactive
c)

p. 94-95

Its, randomly, not fixed, unannounced -->  see example of the teacher doing quiz' in class
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You have decided to experiment with the relationship between reinforcement schedules and maintaining desired
employee behavior. You are interested in observing the differences between continuous and intermittent reinforcement and between the various types of intermittent reinforcement schedules.
Veronica is paid $10.00 per dozen units that she produces. This is an example of reinforcement.

A) intermittent, fixed-interval
B) continuous
C) intermittent, variable-interval
D) negative
E) none of the above
e)

p.94

It is intermittent, fixed ratio schedule reinforcement.- > Piece rate plan--> see example with every dozen zippers produced
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Sam is late coming back to work and you dock his pay. This is an example of .
A) positive reinforcement
B) negative reinforcement
C) punishment
D) extinction
E) classical conditioning
c)

p.93

"Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior"
511
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You want Allison to take an accounting course so that she can help with the bookkeeping.
Allison does not want to go to night school to take the course and has been resisting. You know
that her least favorite duty is preparing payroll. You tell her that she will be given extra help
with preparing payroll whenever she takes an accounting class. This is an example of .
A) positive reinforcement
B) negative reinforcement
C) punishment
D) extinction
E) classical conditioning
a)

p.92

"Positive reinforcement with something pleasant is called positive reinforcement"
512
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You are the first-line supervisor for a group of employees who make cheese slicers. Their job is not terribly interesting or challenging and you have noticed that they are frequently tardy returning from their breaks. You have studied the
concept of shaping behavior and decide that you will try to apply it to this situation.

You praise Allen for returning on time from break. This is an example of .
A) negative reinforcement
B) positive reinforcement
C) extinction
D) social learning
E) modeling
b)

p.92

"...Positive reinforcement. This would describe for instance, a boss who praises an employee for a job well done"
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You work in the air filter manufacturing business. Your division is made up of three other people with very different
biographical characteristics. Gina is 27 years old, single and female. She has been with the company only six months.
Jonathan is 63 years old and a widower who has been with the company for thirty years. Sally is a single mother with
four children who has been with the company for five years.

Which employee would you expect to most desire the option to telecommute or arrange a more flexible work schedule?
A) all these employees would have the same desire for these options
B) Jonathan
C) Sally
D) Gina
E) Gina and Sally
e) ? denkt ihr nur Gina oder beide Frauen gleich?

p.83-84

"But olders workers are also perceives as lacking flexibility and as being resistent to new technology"

Sally as being a single mother, probably would like a flexible work schedule to better combine family and work.
514
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You work in the air filter manufacturing business. Your division is made up of three other people with very different
biographical characteristics. Gina is 27 years old, single and female. She has been with the company only six months.
Jonathan is 63 years old and a widower who has been with the company for thirty years. Sally is a single mother with
four children who has been with the company for five years.

Which employee would you expect to have the lowest rate of
avoidable absence?
A) all these employees would have about the same rate of avoidable absence
B) Sally
C) Gina
D) Jonathan
E) Gina and Sally would probably have equally low rates
d)

p.83

"In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees"

"The research relating tenure to absence is quite straightforward. Studies consitently demonstrate §§seniority to be negatively related to absenteeism$$."
515
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You work in the air filter manufacturing business. Your division is made up of three other people with very different
biographical characteristics. Gina is 27 years old, single and female. She has been with the company only six months.
Jonathan is 63 years old and a widower who has been with the company for thirty years. Sally is a single mother with
four children who has been with the company for five years.

Which employee would be least likely to quit his or her job?
A) all these employees would have about the same likelihood of quitting
B) Gina
C) Jonathan
D) Sally
E) Gina and Sally
c)

p.83, p. 86

"The older you get, the less likely you are to quit your job"

"The longer a person is in a job, the less likely he or she is to quit"
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Who said “Give me a child at birth and I can make him into anything you want”?
A) B.F. Skinner
B) Ivan Pavlov
C) Sigmund Freud
D) James Emery
E) Ben Franklin
153)
a)

p. 100

"Humand beings are essetially blank slates that are shaped by their environment. B.F. Skinner summarized his belief... hwen he said: Give me a child...... make him into anything you want"
517
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A manager wishes to use OB Mod in order to increase the friendliness of his staff towards customers. The manager starts by determining exactly what behaviors his sales staff needs to use in order to increase their friendliness towards customers. What is the next step that the manager should take?

A) determine why employees are not friendly towards customers
B) develop a strategy for increasing the friendliness of employees towards customers
C) reward employees who are friendly towards customers
D) record how often employees are friendly to customers at the present time
E) establish what is needed to motivate employee friendliness towards customers
d)

p.96

"..baseline performance data. ...obtained by determining the number of times the idetified behavior is occuring under present condions."
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Which of the following is one of the steps of the problem-solving model followed by the typical
OB Mod program?
A) identifying critical behaviors
B) reinforcing behavior
C) developing horizontally arrayed data
D) developing vertically arrayed data
E) identifying member barriers
151)
a)

p.96

"The typical OB Mod program follows a five-step problem solving model- (1) identify criticak behavior........."
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The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting is referred to as
.
A) classical conditioning
B) self-management
C) reengineering
D) OB Mod
E) social modeling
150)
d)

p. 96

"... use of behavior modification, called OB Mod. It represents the application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting"
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In general, reinforcement schedules tend to lead to higher performance than
reinforcement schedules.
A) variable; fixed
B) fixed; intermittent
C) fixed; variable
D) variable; ratio
E) fixed; static
149)
a)

p.95

"Variable-interval-schedules generate high rates of response and more stable and consistent behavior because of the high correlation between performance and reward and becaise of the uncertainly involves surprise factor"
521
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According to research, which of the following is a schedule of reinforcement that promotes the
greatest resistance to extinction?
A) continuous
B) fixed interval
C) variable interval
D) fixed ratio
E) negative
148)
c)

p.95

"Variable-interval-schedules generate high rates of response and more stable and consistent behavior because of the high correlation between performance and reward and becaise of the uncertainly involves surprise factor"
522
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In which reinforcement schedule is a reward provided after a given number of responses?
A) variable-ratio
B) fixed-ratio
C) variable-interval
D) fixed-interval
E) viable
147)
b)

p.94

"In a fixed-ratio schedule, after a fixed or constant number of responses are given, a reward in initiated"
523
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The corporate audit staff makes a series of randomly timed, unannounced visits to a company
office. On each visit they check the records to see that they are up to date and correct. These
visits are an example of which of the following?
A) positive reinforcement
B) variable-interval reinforcement schedule
C) continuous reinforcement schedule
D) fixed reinforcement schedule
E) static response method
146)
b)

p.94

-> reinforcements are unpredicatable

"Similary, a series of randomly timed unannonced visits to a company office...is an example for variable-interval schedule."
524
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An employee is frequently late for work. Every time he is not tardy the manager compliments
him for being on time. What form of reinforcement is the manager using?
A) continuous schedule
B) negative
C) intermittent schedule
D) repetitious
E) repetitious negative
145)__
a)

p.93

"A continuous reinforcemnet schedule reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated"
525
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Which of the following is an example of the use of extinction in shaping behavior?
A) A teacher does not respond to any student who speaks before being called upon.
B) A workplace institutes a zero-tolerance policy for drug and alcohol use.
C) A manager docks the pay of all workers who arrive late.
D) A cat owner sprays his cat with water every time it tries to sit on the couch.
E) A soccer coach rewards his players with praise and small rewards if they prevent the
other team from scoring.
143)
a)

p.93

See example to extinction

By ignoring, or better not responding at all to the behavior it will become extincted.
526
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Suspending an employee for dishonest behavior is an example of which method of shaping
behavior?
A) extinction
B) negative reinforcement
C) punishment
D) poor planning
E) reaction
142)
c)

p.93

"Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior"
527
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What is it called when a desired response is followed by the termination or withdrawal of
something unpleasant?
A) negative reinforcement
B) positive reinforcement
C) manipulation
D) elimination
E) psychic withdrawal
a)

p.92

"Following a response with by the termination or withdrawalof something unpleasant is called negative reinforcement"
528
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Which of the following can be used in shaping behavior?

A) positive reinforcement
B) diminishment
C) reaction
D) manipulation
E) unionization
a) 

p.92

Following a response with something pleasant is called reinforcement
See Methods of Shaping Behavior.
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Using shaping, which of the following is not a method that can be used to change behavior?

A) negative reinforcement
B) punishment
C) counseling
D) positive reinforcement
E) extinction
C)

p.92

Methods of Shaping Behavior are: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction.
530
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You want to increase the productivity of an employee. Your goal is to have him produce 10 units per day. On the first day he produces 5 units and you give him a reward. On the second day he produces 5 units and you don’t give him a reward. On the third day he produces 6 units and you give him a reward. Which method of behavioral change are you using?

A) modeling
B) shaping
C) classical conditioning
D) social learning
E) ego impairment
b) shaping

p.92-93

Methods of Shaping Behavior are: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction.

You give positive reinforcement to show the employee that his behavior is closer to the wanted behavior than his former behavior.
531
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What do we call the practice of reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior?
A) modeling
B) shaping
C) classical conditioning
D) social learning
E) aping
b)

p.92

" We shape behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves individuals closer to the desired behavior"
532
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Stella has been late to work often in the past. Stella’s manager tries to change Stella’s behavior by praising her whenever she is on time.
However, Stella realizes that this is what he is doing and resents his attempts to manipulate her behavior. This is an example of what problem with behaviorism and OB Mod?
A) Behaviorism and OB Mod assume that people’s thoughts and feelings in response to their environment are irrelevant.
B) Behaviorism and OB Mod put undue emphasis on cognitive processes.
C) Behaviorism and OB Mod only have an effect on human subjects when those subjects are unaware that these techniques are being used.
D) The best reinforcement to use and the schedule on which it should be used varies widely between individual subjects.
E) Behaviorism and OB Mod are based upon simple models of stimulus and response that may not hold true in a complex, real world environment.
a)

p.97

"...behavorism and OB Mod, which assume that people's innermost thoughts and feelings in response to the environment are irrelevant..."
533
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Which of the following processes deals with how well an individual remembers a model’s action after it is no longer readily available?

A) attitudinal
B) retention
C) motor reproduction
D) reinforcement
E) attention
b)

p-91

"Retention model: A models influence depends on how well the individual remembers the model's action after the model is no longer readily avalable"
534
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Four processes have been found to determine the influence that a model will have on an individual. Which of the following is not one of those processes?

A) attentional processes
B) retention processes
C) motor reproduction processes
D) reinforcement processes
E) consequential processes
e)

p-91-92

Compare with the four processes a), b), c) und d) of determing the influence that a model will have on an individual.
535
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Isadora observes that when her brother Mikey crosses the street without looking he is punished by their parents. Based on this, she is careful to look before she crosses the street. Isadora has learned through what principle?

A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) shaping
D) extinction
E) social learning theory
e)

p.91

She learns by observing others people behavior and the linkes consequnces = social learning theory -> learning through observation and direct experiances
536
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Social learning theory is an extension of .

A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) shaping
D) Pavlovian theory
E) continuous reinforcement principles
b)

p.91

"Although social learning theory is an extension of operant conditioning..."
537
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What do we call the view that we can learn both through observation and direct experience?

A) situational learning theory
B) classical learning
C) social learning theory
D) hands-on learning experience
E) the Pavlov principle
c)

p.91, 1. Satz

" Individuals can learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about somthing as well as through experiences"
538
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According to operant conditioning, when a behavior is not reinforced, what happens to the probability of that behavior occurring again?

A) It increases.
B) It declines.
C) It remains unchanged.
D) It becomes zero.
E) It may increase or decrease based on other factors.
c) ?

p.90

a) b) und d) könnens nicht sein bei e) bin ich unsicher
539
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Your boss does not follow through on her promise to pay you double for overtime hours
worked. When asked again to work overtime, you decline. This is an application of
conditioning.
A) classical
B) operant
C) sensory
D) association
E) disappointment-weighted
129)
b)

p.90

"You see... operant conditioning everywhere. ... the linkage can also work against the best interests of the organization." --> Follow the example underneath this extract. It's the same.
540
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Which of the following researchers thought that reinforcement was the central factor involved in
behavioral change?
A) Pavlov B) Fayol C) Skinner D) Deming E) Surber
127)
c) 

p. 90

"Operant behavior means voluntary or learned behavior.... The tendancy to repeat such behavior is influenced by the reinforcement... brought about the consequences of the behavior.
... What Pavlov did for classical conditioning, ... B.F. Skinner did for operant conditioning"
541
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Operant conditioning argues that .

A) behavior is reflexive
B) behavior is unlearned
C) behavior is a function of its consequences
D) the tendency to repeat a behavior is very strong
E) the tendency to repeat a behavior is instinctual
c)

p.90, 1. Satz des Kapitels "Operant Conditioning"

"Operant conditioning argues that behavior is a function of its consequnces"
542
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Classical conditioning would view which of the following as most likely to be a conditioned
response?
A) wincing when you stub your toe
B) driving on the right side of the road
C) flinching when startled by a loud noise
D) looking for shelter when the sky turns gray
E) mouth watering when you eat delicious food
121)
d)

p.89-90

a) 1) zucken, wenn man sich zeh weh tut ist normal, weil das reflex ist heißt : wincing = unconditioned (natürlich- nich erlernt)

2) driving of the right side ist einfach erlernt.
Conditioned wäre, wenn du immer auf der linken seite fähsrt und dadurch n unfall gehabt hättest, der angst ausgelöst hat und danach entscheidest rechts zu fahren

c) zucken bei lautem geräusch ist auch unconditioned, weil man das refelexartig macht. Conditioned wäre,wenn lautes Geräusch mit Gegenstadnt gepart wird und man dann, selbst wenn man nur den Gegenstand sieht schon zusammenzuckt.

d) Glaub das es die richtige Antwort ist
Wenn Himmel grau wird heißt das bald kommt Regen und man wird nass und krank und is kalt und alles is schieße.
Also
neutral stimulus = grauer himmel
unconditioned stimulus = angst, kalt wenn gewitter da ist
conditioned stimulus = grauer himmel
conditioned response= angst und shelter suchen

e) auch Reflex
543
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Why does classical conditioning theory fail to adequately describe behavior in the workplace?
A) Most behavior of individuals in the workplace is reflexive rather than voluntary.
B) Most behavior of individuals in the workplace is emitted rather than elicited.
C) Most behavior of individuals in the workplace is complex.
D) It is very difficult to determine exactly which conditioned stimulus elicits which response
in the workplace.
E) Classical conditioning works well describing animal behavior but not human behavior.
125)
b)

p.90

"Most behavior, particulary... in organizations, is ermitted rather than elicted"
544
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Which of the following is not true of classical conditioning?
A) Classical conditioning is passive.
B) Classical conditioning can explain simple reflexive behaviors.
C) Learning a conditioned response involves building an association between a conditioned
stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
D) A neutral stimulus takes on the properties of a conditioned stimulus.
E) Classical conditioning is different in many respects from operant conditioning.
123)
d)

p.89-90

When the stimuli, one compelling and the other one neutral, are paired, the neutral one becomes a conditioned stimulus and, hence, takes on the properties of the unconditioned stimulus.
545
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When Joe gets stressed he often drinks chamomile tea. This calms him since he associates
chamomile tea drinking with happy visits with his grandmother in his childhood. The calm
feeling brought on by the tea is an example of which of the following?
A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) sensory learning
D) social learning
E) shaping
124)
a)

p.89 unten

See example of classical conditioning for Christmas Carols and its connection to bringing back pleasant memories of childhood.
546
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In Pavlov’s experiment, the bell was a/an .
A) unconditioned stimulus
B) unconditioned response
C) conditioned stimulus
D) conditioned response
E) none of the above
122)
c)

p.89

" The bell was an artificial stimulus or what we call the conditioned stimulus"
547
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What role did the meat play in Pavlov’s experiment with dogs?
A) an unconditioned response
B) a conditioned stimulus
C) a conditioned response
D) a reconditioned stimulus
E) an unconditioned stimulus
120)
e)

p.89

"In Pavlovs experiment, the meat was an unconditioned stimulus..."
548
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Experiments performed by Ivan Pavlov led to what theory?
A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) social learning
D) method reproduction
E) behavior shaping
119)
ed by Ivan Pavlov led to what theory?
A) classical conditioning
B) operant conditioning
C) social learning
D) method reproduction
E) behavior shaping
119)
a)

p.89

"Classical Conditioning grwe out of experiance... conductes in the ealy 1900s by Russsion psychologist Ian Pavlov"
549
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A cashier starts greeting her customers with a simple “Hello” rather than following the
company policy of greeting them with the standard greeting “Thank you for shopping with us”,
since she find saying the latter slightly embarrassing. In this case, what is the experience that has
led to learning?
A) the feeling of embarrassment when she uses the standard company greeting
B) the direction of the company to use the standard greeting
C) the decision not to use the company greeting
D) her use of the informal greeting of “Hello”
E) the decision of the company to adopt the standard greeting
a)

p.88

"People can learn unfavorable behaviors- to hold prejudices or to shirk their responsibility"
550
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All of the following are true about learning except that it .

A) involves change
B) can have a very short duration
C) requires a change in behavior
D) requires some form of experience
E) affects aptitude
e)


p-88-89

"...learning is a change of behavior.. learning involves changes... change must become ingrained... form of experiance is necessary for learning"
551
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Learning has not taken place in which of the following cases?

A) A farm worker makes sure that she always wears a hat after she was badly sunburned.
B) A salesman watches a training video and then uses some of the techniques in that video.
C) An athlete trains rigorously, until he can run a mile in less than 4 minutes.
D) A warehouseman avoids working by staying in areas of the warehouse where he has
observed that the foreman does not enter.
E) A manager only completes an important project by working through the night.
e)


p. 88

"learning has taken place if an individual behaves, reacts, responds as a result of experience in a manner differnet from the way he formerly behaved"
552
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Which of the following indicates that learning has taken place?

A) the ability to perform well on exams
B) a change in motivation
C) a change in behavior
D) a high I.Q. score
E) an increase in experience
c)

p. 88

"... we can say that changes in behavior indicate that learning has taken place and that learning is a change in behavior"
553
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0
What Fortune 500 company offers domestic partner benefits for gay couples?
A) Wal-Mart
B) Alltel
C) Rubbermaid
D) Nestle
E) Heintz
a)

p.87

"... Fortune 500 companies offer.. benefits for gay couples. This includes componaies such as..... Wal-Mart"
554
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Perhaps the greatest religious issue revolves around what?

A) Christianity
B) Judaism
C) Catholicism
D) Buddhism
E) Islam
e)

p. 87

"Perhaps the greatest religious issue [in the U.S today] revolves around Islam"
555
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Studies indicate that which of the following tends to decrease with increased tenure?
A) job satisfaction
B) productivity
C) absenteeism
D) raises and promotion
E) efficiency
c)

p. 85-86


tenure= Amtszeit im Sinne von wie lange man in einer Firma arbeitet, also ob permanetly oder long-term

"... evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity...

... Studies ... demonstrate senority to be negatively related to absenteeism"

... tenure and job satisfaction are positively related... "
556
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Which of the following statements concerning tenure is not true?

A) Recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity.
B) Tenure does not appear to be a good predictor of employee productivity.
C) Tenure is a potent variable in explaining turnover.
D) Tenure and satisfaction are positively related.
E) Tenure and organizational investment are negatively related.
111)
b) and/or e)?

p. 85-86

b) ist definitiv falsch, keine angaben zu e)

tenure= Amtszeit im Sinne von wie lange man in einer Firma arbeitet, also ob permanetly oder long-term

"... evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity...

so tenure... appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity ...

Tenure is also a potent variable in explaining turnover. ...

... tenure and job satisfaction are positively related. .



557
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Which of the following is a major problem in the use of ability tests for selection and promotion of personnel?

A) The tests are not reliable.
B) The tests fail to take into account the personality of the individual.
C) Some individuals with high intelligence are poor test takers.
D) Women enjoy an unfair advantage on these tests.
E) The tests may have an adverse impact on different racial and ethnic groups.
e)

p. 85

" Major dilema... mental ability test... promotion.. and similar personnel decisions.. may have a negative impact on racial and ethic groups ...
... some minority groups score ... lower than whites in verbal, numeric and spatial ability tests.. only 10% of minority groups score above the average for whites"
558
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Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the higher absentee rate of women in
the workplace?

A) Women tend to have more illnesses that keep them from work than do men.
B) Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family.
C) Women tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than men.
D) Women generally have jobs for which a temporary replacement can be hired.
E) Women tend to work in jobs that have less flexible schedules than men do.
b)

p.84

"... has historiacally places home and family responsibilities on the women.....
historical role of woman in caring for children and as secondary breadwinner"
559
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Research supports which of the following statements about men and women in the workplace?
A) Men are more productive.
B) Women are more productive.
C) Men are the most receptive to socialization.
D) Women are more likely to resign.
E) Women have more absences.
e

see page 84

(resign= kündigen)

" There are NO .. DIFFERNCES in sociability ...

... you should operate on the assumption that.. no differences in job productivity...

... womens quit rates are similar

... women have higher rates of absenteeism... "
560
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Research does not support which of the following statements about gender in the workplace?

A) Women are more willing to conform to authority than men.
B) Men are more aggressive than women.
C) Women are more productive at work than men.
D) Men have higher expectations of success.
E) Women have lower turnover rates than men.

c) or/and  e) ???
Both of the statements are wrong according to the text. What do you think about?

see page 84

" There are NO .. DIFFERNCES in problem solving ability, analytic skills, competetive drive, motivation, sociability or learning ability.

... studies have found that women are more willing to conform to authority and that men are more aggressive and more likely.. to have expectations of success, but those differnces are minor.

... you should operate on the assumption that.. no differences in job productivity...

.... questions on turnover... no sigificant differnces"

561
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Which of the following is true concerning the relationship between age and job satisfaction?

A) Most studies have found a negative association between age and satisfaction.
B) Some studies have found a U-shaped relationship between age and satisfaction.
C) Satisfaction decreases among professionals as they age.
D) Satisfaction increases among nonprofessionals during middle age.
E) Satisfaction decreases among nonprofessionals after middle age.
b

See bottom pf page 83

"Most studies indicate a positive association between age and satisfaction... Other studies... have found a U-shaped relationship... [indifferences are caused by] ...intermixing professionals and nonprofessional employees.
... Satisfaction tends to... increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among nonprofessionals during middle age... rises again in the later years!
562
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Which of the following statements is true?

A) Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers.
B) Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers.
C) Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers.
D) Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers.
E) Older employees generally have lower productivity than younger workers.
a)

see page 83

"In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees.
However, they have higher rates of unavoidable absence... due to poorer helath... longer recovery..."
563
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Research shows that which of the following is likely to decrease as a worker grows older?
A) productivity
B) likelihood of quitting
C) absenteeism
D) vacation days taken
E) work ethic
b)

see page 83
"The older you get, the less likely you are to quiet your job"
564
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What will be the largest demographic change in the U.S. workforce in the next decade?
A) increasing ethnic diversity
B) a fall in married workers
C) increasing age of workers
D) decreasing tenure of workers
E) more women in the workforce than men
c

see page 82
"The relationship between age and job is likely to be an issue of increasing importance..... the workforce is aging"
565
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Which of the following is not a biographical characteristic?
A) political affiliation
B) age
C) sex
D) tenure
E) race
a)

See p. 82-85.
Biographical characteristics are AGE, GENDER (or also aclles Sex), RACE, and TENURE, RELIGION, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, and GENDER IDENTITY
Kartensatzinfo:
Autor: Elisa
Oberthema: Business Economics
Thema: Behavior, Managment and Organisation
Schule / Uni: Hanze Hogeschool
Ort: Groningen
Veröffentlicht: 14.02.2010
Tags: Exam Year 1
 
Schlagwörter Karten:
Alle Karten (565)
1. Absatz (1)
A review of the managers job (1)
Ability (1)
Anthropology (2)
Changing U.S. demographies (4)
Common Bias and Errors in Decision Making- Escalation of Commitement (1)
Common bias and errors n decision making- confirmation bias (1)
Complementing intuition with systematic study (2)
Coping with temporariness (2)
Creating a positive work envirnoment (1)
Decision Making in organizations- Intuition (1)
Defining and classifying groups (4)
Defining Motivation (3)
Definition of model (1)
Definition of OB (4)
Effective versus successful managerial activities (2)
Embracing diversity (1)
Equity theory (3)
Evaluating Group Effectiveness (1)
Exhibit (2)
Exhibit 11-1 (1)
Exhibit 11-9 (1)
Exhibit 9-3 (1)
Exhibit Allocation of activities by time (3)
Exhibit Dimensions of intellectual abilities (1)
Exhibit Minzbergs managerial roles (1)
Exhibit Minzbergs mangerial roles (1)
Exhibit Toward an OB discipline (3)
Exhibit Why do people join groups (1)
Expectancy theory (3)
first sentence (1)
Forming (1)
GMA (1)
Group properties 2 & 3 (1)
Group property 1 (1)
Group property 4 (3)
Hawthorne studies (1)
Helping employees balance work-life conflicts (1)
Hier. o. N. Theory- 3. Social (1)
Hierachy o. Needs Th. - 5. Self actualization (1)
Hierachy of Needs Th. (4)
Hierachy of Needs Theory (2)
Implications (1)
Improving customer service (3)
Improving ethical behavior (1)
Improving quality and productivity (2)
Individual-level variables (1)
Intellectual abilities (1)
Interpersonal roles (1)
letzter Absatz (1)
letzter Satz (1)
Management functions (6)
Management roles (1)
Management skills (5)
Managing people during the war of terror (2)
Managing workforce diversity (2)
Mangement functions (1)
McCellands theory of needs (1)
OCB (1)
Productivity (6)
Psychology (1)
Reinforcement theory (1)
Role expectations (1)
Shortcuts in judging others- contrast effect (2)
Shortcuts in Judging others- stereotyping (1)
Size (1)
Social-Psychology (2)
Sociology (4)
Status and group interaction (1)
Status and norms (1)
Summary and Implications for managers- Perception (1)
Systematic study (1)
The dependent variables (2)
The five-stage model (7)
The importance of interpersonal skills (1)
Theories of X and Y (1)
Theory X and Y (1)
There are few absolutes in OB (3)
Three compnent Model of creativity (1)
Three Component Model of Creativity (1)
Three component Model of Creativity- Expertise (1)
Three ethical Decision criteria (1)
Three etical decision criteria (1)
Turnover (1)
Two factor theory (1)
under Exhibit (3)
Working in networked organizations (2)
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