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All main topics / Business / Public Relations

APR (202 Cards)

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1
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Who wrote Crystallizing Public Opinion?
Edward Bernays
Tags: Edward Bernays, History
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Lukaszewski's Steps for Crisis
Alert local and public safety officials

If help is available through prior arrangement or business partners

Provide assistance to victims

Gather information about the crisis
Tags: Crisis
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Types of publics (Grunig)
Nonpublics - issue has no effect
Latent - not aware (easier to change)
Aware - understand the issue but hasn't acted
Active - are doing something

Think: NALL
Tags: Theory
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Get An Opening, Stay There And Eat My Burnt Toast
Goal
Audiences
Objective
Strategy
Tactics
Activities
Evaluation
Materials
Budget
Timeline

10 Steps for writing a Public Relations plan
Tags: RPIE
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George Creel
Understood the power of publicity to mobilize the public

Four Minutemen and created spokespersons
Tags: History
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Rex Harlow
Founded the American Counsel that ultimately became PRSA
Tags: History
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Theodore Roosevelt
First president to exploit news media as a new tool
Tags: History
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Samuel Adams
Organization - Sons of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence

Symbols - Liberty tree

Slogans - Taxation without representation

Events - Boston Tea Party

Tags: History
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Publicity Bureau
Nation's first publicity firm

(distributed Railroad propaganda)
Tags: History
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Sarbanes Oxley legislation
covers corporate auditing accountability and transparency. Affects how information is disclosed
Tags: Business literacy
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What is the Sherman/Clayton Act?
Makes it illegal to engage in activity that ruins competition.

Overselling wording in news releases announcing acquisitions and divestitures can be cited as violations.
Tags: Law
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What are the Securities Act of 1933 and the Security Exchange Act of 1934?
Contain checks and balances for securities-related actions.

(1934 - mandates disclosure)
Tags: Law
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13
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Describe what a goal is in a public relations plan.
longer-term, broad, more global, future statement of "being"

(example: to become the recognized leader, foster continuing support, etc.)
Tags: RPIE
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Describe what an objective is in terms of a public relations plan.
shorter-term, defines WHAT behavior, attitude or opinion you want to achieve from specific audiences, how much to achieve, and when to achieve.

Objectives should be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, time specific)

Tags: RPIE
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What is changed with an outcome objective?
change in behavior, awareness, opinion, support

(requires high-level strategic thinking)
Tags: RPIE
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What is changed with process objectives?
to "inform" or "educate"
Tags: RPIE
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What is the result with input objectives?
the number of activities or inputs

(number of contacts or news releases)

These can help monitor your work but have no direct value in measuring the effectiveness of a campaign
Tags: RPIE
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What is a strategy in terms of a public relations plan?
The approach to reach objectives.

Describe HOW to reach your objectives

Tags: RPIE
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What is a tactic in terms of a public relations plan?
Specific elements of a strategy, More specifically "how to."

(examples: meetings, publications, tie-ins, news releases, etc.)

Activities are details of tactics: six meetings, four publications, etc. They have dates, indicate who is in charge, etc.
Tags: RPIE
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Sole proprietorship
You are the sole owner of the company.

Easy to create and inexpensive to operate.

All the profits belong to the owner who pays taxes according to their personal income.

Disadvantage: owner must raise all the capital for the business without the help of investors. Owner is liable for the debts. Company terminates when the owner dies.
Tags: Business literacy
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What is a partnership?
Two people own a company. Shared talent, resources and risk. They receive all profits and pay taxes on what they report as income.

Disadvantage: All partners are liable for all debts and the company ends when the partners die.
Tags: Business literacy
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What is a corporation?
Large, publicly-held companies that sell stock to raise capital. Stockholders are only at risk of losing the amount they have invested. The owners are the stockholders.

Profits of the corporation are taxed and each stockholders share of the profits are taxed.
Tags: Business literacy
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23
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What is a limited liability company?
Like a partnership but the owners are not responsible for the company's debt.
Tags: Business literacy
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24
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What is horizontal integration?
An organizational structure that describes a company's decision to acquire capabilities  that complement its current core competencies.

(example: an oil company acquiring refineries)
Tags: Business literacy
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What is vertical integration?
An organizational structure that describes the degree to which a firm owns the upstream or downstream supply chain components.

(example: a computer manufacturer purchasing a silicon chip manufacturer)
Tags: Business literacy
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26
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When writing an objective, what should be included?
Basis for evaluation, time frame, level of behavior/opinion change, publics affected
Tags: RPIE
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What is the agenda-setting process?
A fluid, dynamic attempt to get the attention of the media, the public, and/or policy makers
Tags: Theory
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What is the agenda-setting process?
A fluid, dynamic attempt to get the attention of the media, the public, and/or policy makers
Tags: Theory
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29
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Give a multi-directional example of agenda-setting theory.
The president calls a press conference
the media report about the event
it becomes part of the public agenda

OR

a story appears in the news
the public becomes irate or concerned about the issue
the issue becomes part of the policy-makers' agenda
that leads to the passage of some kind of legislation
Tags: Models and Theories
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In a SWOT analysis, what does the S stand for and mean?
Strengths - Attributes of the organization that are helpful to achieving the objective
Tags: Research
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In a SWOT analysis, what does the W stand for and mean?
Weaknesses - Attributes of the organization that are harmful to achieving the objective.
Tags: Research
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In a SWOT analysis, what does the O stand for and mean?
Opportunities - External conditions that are helpful to achieving the objective
Tags: Research
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In a SWOT analysis, what does the T stand for and mean?
Threats - External conditions that are harmful to achieving the objective
Tags: Research
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34
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What is a line management function?
In an organizational structure, often limited to product- and profit-producing functions that increase the bottom line

(engineering, production, marketing)

Tags: Management Skills and Issues
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35
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What is a staff management function?
Provide advice and cousel to those in line management positions
Tags: Management Skills and Issues
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36
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What is business literacy?
The ability to use financial and business information as the basis
for decisions that help and organization achieve success.

Understanding exactly how various organizations make money - and what differentiates one organization from its competitors.

Knowing the legal, political, and regulatory environment.

Understanding the basic economic trends and how they affect different organizations.
Tags: Business literacy
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37
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What is the best way to find basic information on a publicly traded company?
Search their Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings
Tags: Business literacy
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38
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What is a 10-K?
An annual report that provides a comprehensive overview of the company.

filed within 60 days after the close of the company's fiscal year

includes company history, organizational structure, equity, holdings, earnings per share, subsidiaries, etc.

companies list strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities, threats facing the company and its industry
Tags: Business literacy
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39
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What is a 10-Q?
A quarterly financial report containing unaudited financial data.

Due 35 days after the close of each of the first three fiscal quarters
Tags: Business literacy
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40
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What is an 8-K?
Filed for unscheduled material or corporate events of importance to the shareholders and SEC.

This is a great report to read to determine if any significant problems the company may be facing (litigation, executive wrongdoings, or other problems).

May include problems facing the entire industry or product category.

Can provide an early warning for potential litigation against your company.
Tags: Business literacy
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41
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What is a proxy statement?
(sometimes referred to as Form Def 14A)

Produced for the benefit of shareholders prior to the Annual Maating of Shareholders so that they can make informed decisions about matters due to be discussed at the Annual Meeting.

Can include proposals for new additions to the board of directors, information on directors' and executives' salaries, information on bonus and option plans for directors and key managers, and any declarations made by company management.
Tags: Business literacy
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What is an 8-K?
Filed for unscheduled material or corporate events of importance to the shareholders and SEC.

This is a great report to read to determine if any significant problems the company may be facing (litigation, executive wrongdoing, or other problems).

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What is the best way to respond to the media during a crisis?
Provide prompt, frank and full information as the crisis unfolds.

Keeping silent makes the problem worse.
Tags: Crisis
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What is the best way to communicate during a crisis?
Assign specific roles to team mambers

Train and retrain the spokesperson - emphasize the need for them to work with others involved and to communicate so the organization is seen as speaking with one voice.
Tags: Crisis
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How often should a crisis communications plan be reviewed?
At lest annually, a quarterly review is better.
Tags: Crisis
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46
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When should a crisis plan be implemented?
Immediately.

An organization's reputation often stands or falls based on how it handles a crisis during the first 24 hours.
Tags: Crisis
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47
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During a crisis, who should be informed first?
Employees and internal audiences.
Tags: Crisis
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48
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What is the right of privacy?
This law ensures an individual's right to be left alone and can be violated if names, likenesses, and/or information is used for commercial purposes.

Tags: Law
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49
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What is statutory copyright and how it it obtained?
An author must submit to the Library of Congress and display the copyright symbol on the material.

Use of the copyright symbol must be on the very first copy sold or publicly distributed.
Tags: Law
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50
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What is fair comment?
Insulates a reporter or publication against defamation. The information must be related to community interest with the subject.
Tags: Law
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51
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What is fair use?
This law allows use or parts of copyrighted materials without violating copyright laws and without paying a royalty or fee when used for: criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research.

Applies to the distribution of: music, photographs, videos, software, printed works.

Drawing the line  as to what is fair use is one of the most difficult problems of copyright law.
Tags: Law
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What is common law copyright? How long does it last?
An author who creates a tangible expression of his or her ideas immediately acquires common law copyright.

It continues until the author dedicates work to the general public by a general publication, or surrenders common law copyright to obtain specific statutory copyright protection.
Tags: Law
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53
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What are the limitations of focus group interviews?
Cannot be used to statistically measure human behavior (qualitative research)

Individuals being interviewed are drawn at random form the universe but are too few to be statistically significant

Tags: Research
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54
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In a population of 100,000 and above, how many need to be sampled to yield a confidence level of 95%?
384
Tags: Research
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55
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When writing threatening questions, what should be remembered when writing questions?
create a comfortable environment

ask long, open-ended questions

avoid technical terms

phrase the question in terms of "most people you know"

put it at the end of the interview

Tags: Research
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What is a census and when is it especially useful?
A 100% sample.

Identify everyone in your universe and everyone gets an opportunity to respond.

Especially useful with small well-defined populations. Universe is less than 300.

Tags: Research
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What is a probability sample?
Scientific was of choosing a sample. The probability of being chosen is known or is equal.

A random sample is a good example.
Tags: Research
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What is a nonprobability sample? What are the advantages and drawbacks?
A more informal selection of persons to be interviewed.

Advantages: sampling is easier and faster, can be considered to be representative of the total population

Drawback: Can't be projected to the universe
Tags: Research
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59
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"Drop by a store and ask questions of whomever is there," is an example of what kind of sample?
Convenience or accidental
Tags: Research
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60
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Give an example of a quota sample.
In an elementary school, find 10 third graders, 10 fourth graders and 10 fifth graders. Any 10 of each kind.
Tags: Research
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Give an example of a dimensional sample.
Identify a specific number dimensions (married female technical workers). Any employee is acceptable if they meet those characteristics.
Tags: Research
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Give an example of a snowball sample.
You may know only a few users of a certain type of computer but they know probably know others. Contact the first few and ask them for names of others. Continue until you find the sample you desire.
Tags: Research
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Give an example of a purpose sample.
(Identify a sample that suits your purpose)

For the opinion of golfers, visit the 19th hole
Tags: Research
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64
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What are the advantages of using a survey for research?
Easy for the person to participate

Respondents can remain anonymous

Put questions in a sequence that will give responses for threatening topics

Answers can be quantified and analyzed quickly

You can pre-mail a product and follow up with a survey

Can be used in a variety of ways: in-person,written, telephone
Tags: Research
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What are the disadvantages of using a survey for research?
People may not answer all of the questions

Respondents may not be of the universe you intended to sample

Hard to statistically analyze open-ended questions

Easy for people to give habitual responses

People don't return them

Costs for mailing and return gifts can be expensive

People won't write a lot

People can and do lie

Answers can be too broad

You can't test knowledge with surveys
Tags: Research
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What are advantages of doing web or online-based surveys?
Greater convenience for the respondent

Immediate electronic tabulation of results

Low cost
Tags: Research
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What are the disadvantages of web or online-based surveys?
securing email addresses

low resonse rates due to spam filters

impersonal nature

ease of leaving the site with a mouse click
Tags: Research
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What is the best research method for complex situations that require extensive explanation or context - or, for subjects who are difficult to access?
Personal Interviewing

It is also the most expensive and rarely used.
Tags: Research
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What is the best research method for basic, well-defined opinions?
Telephone survey

Hold length to 5 to 10 minutes
Use professional callers if possible
It is possible to get nearly 100% response
Tags: Research
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What is the best research method for well-defined concepts and specific limited answers?
Mail surveys

Rarely produce high response rates.

Mail to the right people
Use a cover letter
Send a postcard announcement before the survey to increase response rates
Do a follow-up mailing to increase response rates
Tags: Research
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What are the 10 steps for writing a public relations plan (following the research phase)?
1. Overall goal
2. Target audiences
3. Objectives for those audiences
4. Strategies
5. Tactics
6. Activities
7. Evaluation
8. Materials
9. Budget
10. Timetable and Task List
Tags: RPIE
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When a crisis occurs, what's the first step?
Determine what kind of crisis it is.

Two main categories based on consequences - violent (life of loss or property) or nonviolent (typically financial but not always).
Tags: Crisis
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How should a crisis be defined?
In terms of the triggering event - the cause - if known.
Tags: Crisis
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After priority publics are identified, who should be informed about a crisis first?
Employees and internal audiences.
Tags: Crisis
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What should be done after a crisis is over?
Learn from the experience.

Reconvene the crisis team to evaluate. Review the causes, the organization's response and the outcomes. Make changes to the plan as needed.

Update the crisis management/communication plan.
Tags: Crisis
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What are the three categories of crises?
Immediate

Emerging

Sustained
Tags: Crisis
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What is an immediate crisis and give an example.
Often natural disasters or major emergencies.

There is often little opportunity for specific research and planning. However, a general plan can be in place and implemented.
Tags: Crisis
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What is an emerging crisis? Give an example.
Those that allow more time for analysis and specific planning.  Often can be anticipated or minimized at early stages. PR practitioners should inform leaders of situations that are not at the full crisis stage yet but have the potential to become a crisis.

(Employee dissatisfaction, opposition by various groups, budget reductions)
Tags: Crisis
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What is a sustained crisis? Give an example.
Situations that won't go away or could linger for years. Best solution is to stop them as early as possible.

(Dealing with rumors)
Tags: Crisis
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How do copyright laws apply to Internet references?
Adhere to traditional copyright procedures
Tags: Law
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81
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How are key informants utilized during research?
Knowledgeable leaders and experts.

Generally takes the form of an open-ended discussion. Does not reflect the current views of followers. Often yields early warning signals on important issues.
Tags: Research
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How are focus groups utilized during research?
Involves about 8 - 12 people.

Led by a moderator.

Explore how people will react to proposals and to gather information useful for developing questionnaires to be used in more formal research methods.

Unanticipated reactions may be the best reasons for using these methods.

Results cannot be used to make inferences to a larger population.
Tags: Research
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What is the main purpose for research?
To reduce uncertainty in decision-making.
Tags: Research
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84
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What is the systematic gathering of information to describe and understand a situation and to check out assumptions about publics and public relations consequences?
Research
Tags: Research
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85
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How do problems present themselves in a closed system?
Often as crises.
Tags: Research
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Advisory committees and boards (as applied to research)
Useful for long-running programs and issues.

Can serve as a continuous feedback mechanism.

Their advise must be given earnest consideration.

This is an exploratory technique used to supplement more formal methods.
Tags: Research
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Ombudsman Officer
Someone who listens to the concerns of internal organizational publics. May also mediate disputes  and review organizational policies.

Because the method relies on people who seek out the opportunity to make their feelings and complaints known - a self-selected sample - it is an exploratory, informal approach.
Tags: Research
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Call-in telephone lines
Used to obtain instant feedback and monitor concerns and interests of various publics.

To be effective - it must be used with sincerity.
Tags: Research
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Mail analysis
Periodic analysis of incoming mail.

Economical

Writers tend to be more critical than complimentary. Self-selected sample.

My serve as early warning signs. May indicate the need for more formal research.

Does not reflect a cross section of public opinion or even the views of a particular public.


Tags: Research
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Field reports
District agents, field representatives, recruiters, etc. who live in and travel the territories served.  Should be trained to listen  and observe and be given an easy, regular means of reporting their observations.

Subjective.

May call for more thorough investigation.
Tags: Research
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Formal methods of research
Designed to gather data from scientifically representative samples.

Help answer questions about situations that simply cannot be answered adequately using informal approaches.

Useful only if the research question and objectives are determined before the research design is selected.

Makes it possible to make accurate statements about publics based on evidence drawn from statistically representative samples.
Tags: Research
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What is secondary analysis?
Reuses data gathered by someone else, often for other purposes

(Nielson, Gallup, major newspapers and tv stations, major universities, special interest publications, scholarly journals, online databases, etc.)
Tags: Research
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What is content analysis?
Systematic procedures for objectively determining what is being reported in the media.

Press clippings and broadcast monitor reports.

They indicate only what is being printed or broadcast, not what is read or heard. Does not measure whether or not the audiences learned or believed the message.
Tags: Research
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Surveys
Systematic queries of subsets of the population under study.

Administered by mail, in person, via telephone, and online.

The adequacy of the administration method depends on the sampling procedures used, what questions are asked, and how the questions are asked.
Tags: Research
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of mailed questionnaires?
Advantages - considerable savings of time and money, convenience for respondents because they determine when to answer the questions, greater assurance of anonymity, standardized wording, no interviewer bias, access to respondents not readily reached in person by interviewers, opportunity for respondents to gather information needed to complete the questionnaire. Quantitative data that is viewed as accurate.

Disadvantages - No control over who responds, low response rates are typical, unless all respond there is no assurance of an unbiased sample, no control over the conditions under which the questionnaire is completed,  no assurance that the intended respondent completed the questionnaire, lack of flexibility in how questions are asked if the respondents doesn't understand the questions, difficulties in getting and maintaining current mailing lists.
Tags: Research
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of in-person, face-to-face administration of surveys?
Advantages - gives researchers higher response rates compared to mail surveys,  greater flexibility in dealing with the respondents, more control over conditions in which the questions are asked, increased control over the order and completeness of questioning, opportunity to observe and record reactions not covered by the questionnaire.

Disadvantages - Relatively greater research costs, tendency of respondents to answer certain questions differently in the face of an interviewer, greater inconvenience imposed on respondents, less anonymity for respondents, the interviewers themselves can influence the information gathered
Tags: Research
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Research is used to determine ___.
What's happening now?
Tags: Research
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How is the problem statement written? What questions does it answer?
Present tense, describing the current situation
Describes the situation in specific, measurable terms

What is the concern?
Where is this a problem?
When is it a problem?
Who is involved or affected?
How are they involved or affected?
Why is this a concern to the organization and its publics?
Tags: Research
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What is a situation analysis and what is included?
Unabridged collection of all this is known about the situation, its history, forces operating on it, and those involved or affected internally and externally.

Contains all the background information needed to expand upon and to illustrate in detail the meaning of a problem statement.
Tags: Research
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When is a communication audit conducted and what is it?
Conducted during the Research/Situation Analysis phase.

A systematic documentation of an organization's communication efforts for the purpose of understanding how it communicates with its publics.
Tags: Research
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What is a stakeholder analysis and when is it conducted?
Conducted during the Research/Situation Analysis phase.

Process of identifying who is involved and who is affected in a situation. What they know, how they feel, what they do that is related to the problem.
Tags: Research
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What does SWOT stand for?
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats

Tags: Research
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103
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What are the 4 torts of privacy?
Intrusion - intruding into someone's private affairs
Public disclosure - sharing private information
False light - Painting a false picture of someone
Appropriation - using their name or likeness for your advantage
Tags: Law
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What outweighs privacy interests in public interest involving public officials or public figures participating in public proceedings?
Newsworthiness
Tags: Law
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105
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The first amendment protects what 5 rights?
religion
speech
press
assembly
petition
Tags: Law
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Communications Act of 1934
Created the FCC and gave them the power to make and enforce policies for broadcasting and licensing for station operators
Tags: Law
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Freedom of Information Act of 1966
promotes full disclosure from the executive branch of government. Applies only to tangible items of informaiton but not intangible information.
Tags: Law
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When does public ownership of creative material exist in the public domain?
When a copyright has expired, when an author has never claimed copyright and when the materials were produced by government employees on government-paid time.
Tags: Law
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What are the eight categories of works that can be copyrighted?
literary works
musical works
dramatic works
pantomimes
artwork (pictures, sculptures, etc.)
motion pictures
sound recordings
architectural works
Tags: Law
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What three elements must a copyright notice have?
the word "Copyright" (abbreviation Copr. or copywrite symbol)
the year of first publication
the name of the copyright owner

*formal registration is required to file suit
Tags: Law
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How long is a copyright applicable to visual art created after 1990?
Lifetime of the artist only
Tags: Law
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Who owns the copyright when something is made by an employee as part of his/her employment?
The employer
Tags: Law
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113
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What is infringement?
Violation of one or more of copyright "rights" of the owner
Tags: Law
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What three things must a copyright owner show proof of when suing for infringment of their copyright?
Originality of the work

Probably access by the infringer

Substantial similarity of the unauthorized work to the original
Tags: Law
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What is a trademark?
Words, names, and symbols used by companies to identify and distinguish their goods or services from those of another
Tags: Law
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What is a trade name?
Identifies the commercial name of the producer
Tags: Law
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What is a service mark?
Identifies a source of services
Tags: Law
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How long does a trademark registration last?
10 years, with 10-year renewals granted for a long as the mark is used in commerce
Tags: Law
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Treble damages
Able to be recovered after a successful infringement suit

The persons who infringed the trademark must pay the owner three times the infringer's profits from using the mark or three times the damages sustained by the legal owner, whichever is greater.
Tags: Law
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Who has the burden of proof in libel actions? What must be proved?
The plaintiff has the burden of proof.

Must prove:
• Defamation - intentional false communication that injures another's reputation or good name
•  Publication
•  Identification
•  Retraction - requested by the plantiff
•  Fault
Tags: Law
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New York Times v. Sullivan
public figure must prove actual malice

Tags: Law
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Rule 10 b-5
It is your legal responsibility that information is accurate and complete.

(Think: It would be fraud to say 10 comes "b"fore 5)
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5 common mistakes in Crisis management
Deny there is a problem

Count yourself as a victim

Engage in testosterosis

Behave arrogantly

Be self centered
Tags: Crisis
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What is the standard of proof for public figures?
Actual malice
(The false statement is made with knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard to its truthfulness.)
Tags: Law
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What is the standard of proof for private figures?
The failure to act as a reasonable person would in similar circumstances.
Tags: Law
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What are the legal defenses for libel?
Summary judgement (insufficient evidence)
Statute of limitations
Truth
Opinion
Privilege

SSTOP
Tags: Law
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What are the public opinion categories in order from easiest to hardest to change?
Opinion
Beliefs
Attitudes
Values

(Mnemonic: Oh BAV)
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How long does copyright protection last for works after 1978?
The life of the author plus 70 years.
Tags: Law
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How long does copyright protection last for an anonymous work, a pseudonymous work, or a work made for hire?
95 years from its first publication or 120 years from the date of its creation, whichever expires first
Tags: Law
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What are the PRSA Values?
(HEAL IF)

Honesty
Expertise
Advocacy
Loyalty

Independence
Fairness
Tags: ethics
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What is the moral philosphy?
The study of what actions are right, or morally defensible, and what actions are wrong, or morally unworthy
Tags: ethics
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132
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Who believed that public relations should act as the ethical conscience of the organization?
Ivy Lee and John Hill
Tags: ethics
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utilitarianism
• takes into account the expected outcome in order to determine the "right thing to do"

• the most common approach

• the greatest amount of good for the most number of people

• could prevent an organization from adapting to change

• Jeremy Bentham
Tags: ethics
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What is universal duty?
represents what all rational people would agree is ethical from any perspective on the issue
Tags: ethics
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What is the categorical imperative?
• the decision test of deontology

• measures a person's intention and maintaining dignity and respect of others
Tags: ethics
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What are the benefits of deontology?
• likely to keep an organization in balance with the desires of its stakeholder publics

• responsive to changing trends
Tags: ethics
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What is applied ethics?
the application of moral values in practice

guides professional practice and provides the basis for enforcement and sanctions
Tags: ethics
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Public relations value to society is enhanced when:
1) it promotes the free, ethical competition of ideas in the marketplace of public opinion

2) reveals the sources and goals of participants in the debate

3) enforces high standards of conduct
Tags: ethics
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Value to society is diminished when:
1) suppresses or limits competition of ideas

2) hides the true sources of public relations efforts

3) leaves unchallenged incopetent or unethical practice
Tags: ethics
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140
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Major positives of socially responsible public relations:
1) codifying and enforcing ethical conduct

2) improves organizations conduct

3) makes all points of view articulate in the public forum

4) serves our scattered society by replacing misinformation with information

5) helps social systems adapt to changing needs
Tags: ethics
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141
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Who offered the first university-level public relations course? When?
Edward Bernays

1923
Tags: ethics
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Steps in the ethics decision-making process
1) define the specific issue

2) identify internal and external factors that may influence the decision

3) identify key values

4) identify affected audiences

4) select ethical principles to guide the decision making process

6) make decision and justify it
Tags: ethics
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agenda-setting theory
• the media has an effect on congnitive levels without affecting predisposition

• the media shapes top-of-mind presence regarding issues
Tags: Models and Theories
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agenda setting process
a fluid, dynamic attempt to get the attention of the media, the public, and/or policy-makers
Tags: ethics
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the Diffusion process
1) explains how people adopt or reject change

2) reveals why major change is not accomplished  in a brief time

3) reveals why it cannot be accomplished through news media alone

4) emphasizes why channels of interpersonal communication are the most effective
Tags: Theory
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What is diffusion theory?
We are creatures of habit. The study of getting anything new adopted.

Dr. Everett Rogers

word of mouth is very important

innovators, early adopters, early majority, nonadopters
Tags: Models and Theories
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Who developed diffusion theory?
Everett Rogers
Tags: Models and Theories
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What aspect of a campaign is very important to diffusion?
word of mouth

If targeted audiences aren't talking about what they've read or seen, the process is stunted.
Tags: Theory
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What are the five ways people are categorized in diffusion?
Innovators - do it first

Early adopters - most important group influential

Early majority - also important influence

Majority - at the tipping point, has diffused

Nonadopters - laggards
Tags: Theory
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What 3 factors move latent publics?
Recognize there is a problem

See themselves as limited

See themselves as being involved
Tags: Theory
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When publics are grouped by the way they behave toward messages and issues, what four types did Grunig identify?
1. All-issue publics - active on all issues
2. Apathetic publics - inattentive and inactive on all issues
3. Single-issue publics - active on a limited number of issues
4. Hot-issue publics - respond after becoming exposed to an issue
Tags: Models and Theories
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5 stages within the diffusion process
1) awareness - individual becomes aware of "it"

2) interest - individual developes an interest in learning more

3) evaluation - an individual asks others for feedback

4) trial - an individual uses a sample, attends a rally, etc.

5) adoption - an indivudual may seek or respond to reinforcement of adoption decision
Tags: ethics
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applied ethics
the application of moral values in practice
Tags: ethics
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What is the principle behind professional ethics?
one's actions are designed to create the greatest good for both the client and community, rather than to enhance the postion and power of the practitioner
Tags: ethics
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What is the imperative of trust?
entering a fiduciary relationship makes you obliged to act in their best interest
Tags: ethics
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Why do professions establish codes of ethics and standards of practice?
to protect both clients and their own postions in society

they often have the weight of law and the power of state sanctions
Tags: ethics
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Public relations is often judged on _.
its impact on society
Tags: ethics
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Public relations social utility is enhanced when:
1) it promotes the free, ethical competition of ideas and individuals in the market place

2) reveals the sources and goals underlying attempts to infulence

3) enforces high standards of conduct
Tags: ethics
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social responsibility
individual practitioners and the whole profession are entrusted with the welfare of the larger society as a condition on how they serve clients
Tags: ethics
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160
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For public relations to achieve professional status there must be:
Specialized education programs, a body of knowledge, community recognition, individual accountability, and commitment to abide by established codes
Tags: ethics
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deontological
• focuses on the moral principle involved

• "Do the right thing"

• the most exhaustive approach

• decision test of the categorical imperative

• Immanual Kant
Tags: ethics
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What does the acronym RPIE stand for?
Research

Planning

Implementation

Evaluation

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What does research help define?
Problem and publics
Tags: Research
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What is counseling?
Advising management concerning policies, relations and communications
Tags: definitions
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165
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What is crisis communication?
Protects and defends and individual, company or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation. These challenges can involve legal, ethical or financial standing.
Tags: definitions
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What is employee relations?
Activities designed to build sound relationships between an organization and its employees, and a critical element in fostering positive attitudes and behavior of employees as ambassadors for their organizations.
Tags: definitions
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What is financial relations?
An aspect of public relations responsible for building relationships with investor publics, including shareholders/stockholders, potential investors, financial analysts, the financial markets, and the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Dealing and communicating with the shareholders of an organization and the investment community.

Also known as investor relations.
Tags: definitions
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What is government relations?
Dealing and communicating with legislatures and government agencies on behalf of an organization.

Tags: definitions
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What is grassroots organizing?
An activist practice for creating social change among average people.

Based on the power of the people to take collective action on their own behalf.

Often used to sway pubic opinion and move legislatures to action.

Grasstops uses the same strategy, but with community influencers.
Tags: definitions
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What is issues management?
The proactive process of anticipating, identifying, evaluating and responding to public policy issues that affect organizations and their publics now and in the future.

In the context of public opinion, issues management attempts to discern trends in public opinion so that an organization can respond to them before they amplift into serious conflict.
Tags: definitions
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171
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What is lobbying?
The specialized area of public relations that builds and maintains relations with a government or its officials for the primary purpose of influencing legislation and regulation.

Must register between the 1st and 10th day of each quarter.
Tags: definitions
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Registering as a foreign agent
Grew out of the Nazis

PR professionals who represent foreign governments must register with the US government. Must report under oath every 6 months.
Tags: Business literacy
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173
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What is marketing?
The management function that identifies human needs and wants, offers products and services to satisfy those demands, and causes transactions that deliver products and services in exchange for something of value to the provider.

Targets customers.
Tags: definitions
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What is marketing communications? Name examples.
A combination of activities designed to sell a product, service or idea.

Examples: advertising, collateral materials, interactive communications, publicity, promotion, direct mail, trade shows and special events
Tags: definitions
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175
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What is media relations?
Mutually beneficial associations between publicists or public relations professionals and members of media organizations as a condition for reaching audiences with messages of news or features of interest.

Maintaining up-to-date lists of media people and a knowledge of media audiences are critical to the function.

Dealing with communication media in seeking publicity or responding to their interest in the organization.
Tags: definitions
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176
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What is multicultural relations?
Relating with people in various cultural groups.

Considerations may include: household composition, age, gender, ethnic background, religious background, language, etc.
Tags: definitions
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What is press agentry?
Creating newsworthy stories and events to attract media attention and gain public notice.
Tags: definitions
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178
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What is proactive public relations?
Taking the initiative to develop and apply public relations plans to achieve measurable results toward set goals and objectives.
Tags: definitions
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179
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What is promotion?
Activities designed to win publicity or attention, especially the staging of special events to generate media coverage.
Tags: definitions
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180
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List the 7 types of propaganda devices.
Glittering generalities (broad statements)

Name calling (emotions)

Transfer (guilt by association)

Bandwagon (everybody's doing it)

Plain folks (anti-elitism)

Testimonials (if irrelevant)

Card stacking (one-sided)
Tags: definitions
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181
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What is public affairs?
A specialized area of public relations that builds and maintains mutually beneficial governmental and local community relations.

Also applies to the military and governmental agencies due to the 1913 Gillett Amendment
Tags: definitions
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What is public information?
Representation of a point of view in collected forms such as facts, news, messages, pictures or data; the process of disseminating such information to publics usually through the mass media.

A designation describing persons charged with the task of such dissemination usually on the behalf of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, colleges or universities.
Tags: definitions
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What is publicity?
Information from an outside source that is used by the media because it has news value.

It is an uncontrolled method of placing messages because the source does not pay for the placement.
Tags: definitions
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What is reactive public relations?
Response to crises and putting out fires defensively rather than initiating programs.

There are varying degrees of reactive public relations with some situation requiring implementation of an organization's crisis plan.
Tags: definitions
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What is reputation management?
(Often citied in the context of crisis management.)

Tags: definitions
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186
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What are special events?
Stimulating an interest in a person, product or organization by means of a focused "happening."

Activities designed to interact with publics and listen to them.
Tags: definitions
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What are uncontrolled communications channels? Give examples.
The media that are not under the direct control of the sender of the message.

Examples: newspapers, magazines, radio, television, external websites, social media commentary, externally produced news stories.
Tags: definitions
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What is advertising?
Information placed in the media by an identified sponsor that pays for time and space.

A controlled method of placing message in the media.
Tags: definitions
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What is a brand?
a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed.

A brand name is the name of the distinctive product, service or concept.
Tags: definitions
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What is branding?
The process of creating and/or disseminating the brand name.

Can also be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names.
Tags: definitions
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What is community relations?
An area of public relations with responsibilities for building relationships with constituent publics such as schools, charities, clubs and activist interests of the neighborhoods or metropolitan areas where an organization operates.

Dealing and communicating with citizens and groups within an organization's operating area.
Tags: definitions
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What are controlled communications channels? Name examples.
self-sponsored communication channels, media and tools that are under the direct control of the sender.

Examples: paid advertising, newsletters, brochures, some types of e-mails, organizational websites and blogs, organizational broadcasts and podcasts, speeches, etc.
Tags: definitions
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Who are active publics?
People who are aware of their tie to a problem and who take action and communicate to do something about a situation.
Tags: Planning and Programming, publics
Source:
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Who are nonpublics?
People who's level of involvement is so low that they have no impact on the organization and the organization has no recognizable impact on them.
Tags: Planning and Programming, publics
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195
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Who are latent publics?
People who are unaware of their connection to the organization's issue or problem.
Tags: Planning and Programming, publics
Source:
196
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Who are aware publics?
People who recognize that they are affected by or involved in a problem situation shared by others but have not communicated about it with others.
Tags: Planning and programming, publics
Source:
197
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Who created the first corporate public relations department?
George Westinghouse (1889)
Tags: History
Source:
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Who founded the American Counsel (that ultimately became PRSA) through mergers w/ other public relations organizations?
Rex Harlow

(1947)
Tags: History
Source:
199
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Who created the Declaration of Principles and what was it?
Ivy Lee

- supply news
- ensure work is done in the open
- work with the media

Tags: History
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200
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Who used testimonials and advised clients to make full discolsure, tell the truth and convince management to do the same?
Ivy Lee
Tags: History
Source:
201
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Who is considered to be the father of Public Relations?
Edward Bernays
Tags: Edward Bernays, History
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202
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Who taught the first course on Public Relations at New York University?
Edward Bernays
Tags: Edward Bernays, History
Source:
Flashcard set info:
Author: Erin
Main topic: Business
Topic: Public Relations
Published: 19.11.2011
 
Card tags:
All cards (202)
Business literacy (14)
Crisis (15)
definitions (28)
Edward Bernays (3)
ethics (24)
History (12)
Law (32)
Management Skills and Issues (2)
Models and Theories (5)
Planning and Programming (3)
Planning and programming (1)
publics (4)
Research (45)
RPIE (10)
Theory (7)
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